The formative aspects of phonography

Kultura Współczesna. Teoria, Interpretacje, Praktyka
nr 3(119)/2022

The formative aspects of phonography

doi.org/10.26112/kw.2022.119.01

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doi.org/10.26112/kw.2022.119.02

Having regained the favourable ear of modern music makers, the magnetic tape has emerged as an important element of today’s phonographic endeavours for listenership. This article discusses its return in social, anthropological and artistic terms. The phonographic potential of the magnetic tape is explored through three of its marketable variants whose diverse tangible qualities provide a counterbalance to the digital media devoid of the aspect of physicality. First, the author presents the history of the reel-to-reel tape, a professional medium offering a variety of options to recording studios (from recording to creation), discussing the consequences of editing and elaborating on reel-to-reel tapes used as audio carriers in official releases, whose presence and development have been recognised by contemporary audiophiles. Second, the text offers some insight into the history of 8-track cartridges, their functions, phonographic contexts (four programmes to present the content of a vinyl record in a distorted order) and contemporary applications. Third, there is the compact cassette that offers the greatest opportunities when creating a new sound material. The revival of the magnetic tape contributes to greater music personalisation as artists’ much needed antidote to the excessive amounts of digitally accessible music.

Key words: magnetic tape, media, phonography, audio carrier, music

 

Bibliography

Brock-Nannestad, George. „The development of recording technologies”. W: The Cambridge Companion to Recorded Music, red. Nicholas Cook, Eric Clarke, Daniel Leech-Wilkinson, John Rink. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

Chlebowski, Piotr. „‘Całość’ jako kategoria formotwórcza i estetyczna w rocku progresywnym. Uwagi wstępne”. W: Unisono w wielogłosie, t. 2: W kręgu nazw i wartości, red. Radosław Marcinkiewicz. Sosnowiec: GAD Records, 2011.

Elicker, Martina. „Concept albums: Song cycles in popular music”. W: Word and Music Studies: Essays on the Song Cycle and on Defining the Field. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2001.

Eno, Brian. „Studio jako narzędzie kompozytorskie”. Tłum. Julian Kutyła. W: Kultura dźwięku. Teksty o muzyce nowoczesnej, red. Christoph Cox, Daniel Warner. Gdańsk: Wydawnictwo Słowo/obraz terytoria, 2010.

Faulstich, Werner. „Muzyka i medium. Szkic historiograficzny od początków do dzisiaj”. Images 7, 13–14 (2009).

Gould, Glenn. „Perspektywy muzyki nagrywanej”. Tłum. Henryk Krzeczkowski. Res Facta. Teksty o muzyce współczesnej 3 (1969).

Kominek, Mieczysław. Zaczęło się od fonografu... Kraków: Polskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne, 1986.

Marcinkiewicz, Radosław. „Unisono czy na pomieszane języki? O kilku terminach związanych z rockiem w 10. rocznicę Metropolis Pt.2: Scenes From A Memory Dream Theater”. W: Unisono na pomieszane języki, t. 1: O rocku, jego twórcach i dziełach (w 70-lecie Czesława Niemena), red. Radosław Marcinkiewicz. Sosnowiec: GAD Records, 2010.

Moore, Thurston. Mix Tape: The Art Of Cassette Culture. New York: Universe Publishing, 2005.

Reynolds, Simon. Retromania. Jak popkultura żywi się własną przeszłością. Tłum. Filip Łobodziński. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Kosmos Kosmos, 2018.

doi.org/10.26112/kw.2022.119.03

This text analyses the phenomenon of the double album as a significant LP and CD format in rock music. It commences with a definition of the double set and a brief discussion of the main reasons for its use in the music industry. The paper provides an overview of the principal types of the double album: double complementary album, double concept album, double live set and double compilation. In addition to these four most popular categories, there are also several interesting subtypes of this format. The most common are companion pieces – albums associated with and complementing each other even though packaged and released separately (sometimes at the same time). The author also focuses on the motives behind the formation of a double album, offering a brief critical discussion of certain shortcomings of this cultural text. Naturally, the greatest challenge in the making of a double album is to express its concept through music and lyrics; however, certain problems may also be identified in the case of live performances released on classic double sets. The final section addresses the questions of the present status of the double album and the rationale for its existence in an age dominated by digital audio formats and streaming.

Key words: double album, cultural text, audio format, typology, concept

 

Bibliography

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Brackett, Donald. Fleetwood Mac: Forty Years of Creative Chaos. Westport: Praeger, 2007.

Byun, Chong Hyun Christie. The Economics of Popular Music Industry. New York: Palgrave, 2016.

Edwards, Eddie. The Garden Tapes: A study of the Led Zeppelin film and album The Song Remains The Same. The Garden Tapes [b.d.]. http://www.thegardentapes.co.uk/tgt.html.

Evans, Mark. Vinyl: The Art of Making Records. London: Quintessence Editions, 2015.

Everett, Walter. The Beatles as Musicians: Revolver through the Anthology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Gallo, Armando. Genesis: I Know What I Like. Los Angeles: D.I.Y. Books, 1980.

Jarrett, Michael. Pressed for All Time: Producing the Great Jazz Albums from Louis Armstrong and Billie Holiday to Miles Davis and Diana Krall. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2016.

Kemp, Martin. Christ to Coke: How Image Becomes Icon. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.

Matijas-Mecca, Christian. Listen to Psychedelic Rock! Exploring a Musical Genre. Santa Barbara: Greenwood, 2020.

Osborne, Richard. Vinyl: The Analogue Record. Farnham: Ashgate, 2012.

Paytress, Mark. The Rolling Stones Off the Record: Outrageous Opinions and Unrehearsed Interviews. London: Omnibus, 2005.

Popoff, Martin. Time And a Word: The Yes Story. London: Soundcheck Books, 2016.

Sheff, David. All We Are Saying: The Last Major Interview with John Lennon and Yoko Ono. New York: St. Martin’s Griffin, 2000.

Wall, Mick. Last of the Giants: The True Story of Guns N’ Roses. London: Trapeze, 2016.

Wyn Jones, Carys. The Rock Canon: Canonical Values in the Reception of Rock Albums. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2008.

doi.org/10.26112/kw.2022.119.04

Album artwork research tends to focus on aspects related to usability and graphics, while frequently ignoring other elements of cover art – the paraphernalia of phonograms represented by functionally diversified texts. Their importance has been recognised with the Grammy Award for Best Album Notes, awarded for excellent liner (sleeve) notes in phonographic publications. This article focuses on to the diverse character of the onymic elements in the sleeve notes on Fragile, the fourth studio album by Yes. Specifically, the songs are divided into those representing the band as a whole and its individual members separately. Proper names emerge in this example as a categorically diverse group, with each of them demanding an individual research approach considering a broad context and at times even extending beyond the album’s multi-code communication. Ideonyms of the works constitute a particular group. Frequently they feature several variants, which hinders their delimitation. Determining their proper form is important as it is the starting point for further analysis.

Key words: rock, phonography, musical onomastics, phonographic publication, publishing frame

 

Bibliography

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Hedges, Dan. Yes. Cudowne opowieści. Tłum. Adam Wójcik. Uzup. Jan Skaradziński. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Rock-Serwis, 1996.

Kominek, Mieczysław. Zaczęło się od fonografu… Kraków: Polskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne, 1986.

Lambe, Stephen. Citizens of Hope and Glory. The story of progressive rock. Stroud: Amberley Publishing, 2013.

Marcinkiewicz, Radosław. „O nazwach polskich wykonawców z kręgu art rocka. Część 2: lata 1990–2003”. Studia Slavica 17, 1 (2013).

Martin, Bill. Music of Yes. Structure and vision in progressive rock. Chicago, La Salle: Open Court, 1997.

Ocieczek, Renarda. „O różnych aspektach badań literackiej ramy wydawniczej w książkach dawnych”. W: O literackiej ramie wydawniczej w książkach dawnych, red. Renarda Ocieczek, Katowice: Wydawnictwo UŚ, 1990.

Popoff, Martin. Time and a Word. The Yes story. London: Soundcheck Books, 2016.

Romano, Will. Close To The Edge. How Yes’s masterpiece defined prog rock. Montclair: Backbeat Books, 2017.

Rychlewski, Marcin. „O wielokodowości rocka”. W: Między duszą a ciałem. A po co nam rock?, red. Wojciech J. Burszta, Marcin Rychlewski. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Książkowe Twój Styl, 2003.

Siwak, Wojciech. Estetyka rocka. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Semper, 1993.

doi.org/10.26112/kw.2022.119.05

This article seeks to reconstruct and redefine the low fidelity (lo-fi) musical culture – the music(-related) discourse and aesthetics of the unfavourable signal-to-noise ratio. Today, the term applies to the dynamically growing genre, production methods, styles and conventions in the broadly defined popular music, as well as the distribution and consumption practices related to the growing popularity of the analogue medium. The genesis of the latter is explored on the example of case studies illustrating the changes in and the reception of the relationship between music and technologies for the recording, editing, modification and reproduction of the audio signal. The case studies are confronted with the critical and philosophical approaches to noise, sound and cultural industry, allowing us to put forward the thesis that the lo-fi culture emerges as a gesture of resistance to the dehumanising acceleration of modern culture. As such it is an attempt to reproduce the aura of authenticity and search for contact with another human being through music.

Key words: lo-fi, phonography, noise, nostalgia, medium

 

Bibliography

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Benjamin, Walter. „Dzieło sztuki w epoce możliwości jego technicznej reprodukcji”. Tłum. Krystyna Krzemień. W: Estetyka i film, red. Alicja Helman. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Artystyczne i Filmowe, 1972.

Citton, Yves, Dario Rudy. „Le lo-fi: épaissir la médiation pour intensifier la relation”. Écologie & politique 48 (2014).

Cox, Christoph, Daniel Warner, red., Kultura dźwięku. Teksty o muzyce nowoczesnej. Gdańsk: Wydawnictwo Słowo/obraz terytoria 2010.

Gracyk, Theodore. Rhythm, and Noise: An Aesthetics of Rock. London: Duke University Press, 1996.

Harper, Adam. Lo-Fi aesthetics in popular music discourse [doktorat]. University of Oxford, 2014. https://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:cc84039c-3d30-484e-84b4-8535ba4a54f8.

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Sitko, Agata. „Sound art: materialność dźwięku”. E(r)go 33, 2 (2016).

Spencer, Amy. DIY. The Rise of the Low-fi Culture. London, New York: Marion Boyars, 2005.

Szpunar, Małgorzata. „Emocje muzyczne jako emocje estetyczne. O związkach emocji z muzyką na przykładzie wybranych koncepcji”. Kultura Współczesna 114, 2 (2021).

Taylor, Phil. „The lo-fi phenomenon-analogue versus digital in the creative process”. Global Media Journal 25, 13 (2015).

The memory of audio carriers

doi.org/10.26112/kw.2022.119.06

There is a prevailing consensus in the literature to relate phonography research to the decreasing aesthetic autonomy of music and distracted listening. However, in an alternative phonographic experience, the same technology can serve as a tool for deep listening, revealing different aesthetic effects. In particular, the phonographic experience, revised and updated under different conditions, may even be conducive to the aesthetic autonomy of music and the implementation of the strategy of deep or structural listening. Once confronted with each other, the different phonographic experiences reveal the ability to update the at times opposing aesthetic categories and ontological constructions. This possibility to shape the phonographic experience in different ways, depending on its context, makes us rethink the common belief in the determining nature of the sound recording technology and recognise other – social, cultural and economic – factors that can have an effect on how phonography is used. This approach leads to an interactive model of the relationship between technology and cultural practices.

Key words: musical culture, phonography, distracted listening, structured listening

 

Bibliography

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Brelet, Gisèle. Esthétique et création musicale. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1947.

Dell’Antonio, Andrew. Beyond Structural Listening? Postmodern Modes of Hearing. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004.

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Hanslick, Eduard. O pięknie w muzyce. Studium estetyczne. Tłum. Stanisław Niewiadomski. Warszawa: M. Arct, 1903.

Ingarden, Roman. Utwór muzyczny i sprawa jego tożsamości. Kraków: Polskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne, 1973.

Ong, Walter J. Orality and Literacy. The Technologizing of the World. London, New York: Routledge, 2002.

Schreiber, Ewa. Muzyka i metafora. Koncepcje kompozytorskie Pierre’a Schaeffera, Raymonda Murraya Schafera i Gérarda Griseya. Warszawa: Narodowe Centrum Kultury, 2012.

Subotnik, Rose R. „Toward a deconstruction of structural listening: a critique of Schoenberg, Adorno and Stravinsky”. W: Deconstructive Variations: Music and Reason in Western Society. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996.

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Wallis, Roger, Krister Malm. Big Sounds from Small Peoples: the Music Industry in Small Countries. New York: Pendragon Press, 1984.

doi.org/10.26112/kw.2022.119.07

This article analyses the technical possibilities and cultural significance of the most important sound recording devices and audio carriers. The experience with the reception of the sound material mediated by the successive inventions of audio technology allows us to indicate the formative features that turned phonography into one of the most significant cultural phenomena of modern times. The discussion combines a historical approach with a philosophical reflection and an attempt at a futurological diagnosis about the contemporary phonography-determined culture of listening. Acknowledged as important components in the development of phonography, crucial concepts such as ‘image’, ‘motion’ and ‘sound’ are analysed in the context of the ‘memory’ of audio carriers. Phonography is defined as a series of activities whose purpose is to mediate, recreate and replay sounds, as well as the results of these activities (objects, devices and carriers) and ways to experience them. The latter, including ways of listening and perception, are recognised as the most important part of the entire process, which allows us to consider phonography as a phenomenon that significantly changes not only specific habits but also ways of thinking about the world.

Key words: phonography, postphonography, listening, audio carriers

 

Bibliography

Brach-Czaina, Jolanta. Szczeliny istnienia. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Dowody na Istnienie, 2018.

DeLaurenti, Christopher. „Imperfect sound forever: A letter to a young phonographer”. Resonance 2, 2 (2021).

Derrida, Jacques. O gramatologii. Tłum. Bogdan Banasiak. Łódź: Wydawnictwo Officyna, 2011.

Edison, Thomas A. „The phonograph and its future”. The North American Review 126, 262 (1878).

Kirk, Geoffrey S., John E. Raven, Malcolm Schofield. Filozofia przedsokratejska. Studium krytyczne z wybranymi tekstami. Tłum. Jacek Lang. Warszawa, Poznań: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, 1999.

Libera, Michał. Doskonale zwyczajna rzeczywistość. Socjologia, geografia albo metafizyka muzyki. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Krytyki Politycznej, 2012.

Lichota, Patryk. Transpozycje obecności w sztuce mediów. Od telekinezy do teleobecności. Poznań: Wydawnictwo Nauk Społecznych i Humanistycznych UAM, 2021.

Parikka, Jussi. Owady i media. Tłum. Mateusz Borowski, Małgorzata Sugiera. Kraków: Księgarnia Akademicka, 2017.

Voegelin, Salomé. „Słuchając hałasu i ciszy. Ku filozofii sztuki dźwiękowej”. Tłum. Paulina Bożek, Grzegorz Nowak. Teksty Drugie 5 (2015).

Wajdowicz, Roman. Polskie osiągnięcia techniczne z dziedziny utrwalania i odtwarzania dźwięku do roku 1939. Wrocław, Warszawa, Kraków: Wydawnictwo Polskiej Akademii Nauk, 1962.

doi.org/10.26112/kw.2022.119.08

On the one hand, in Polish ethnomusicology, phonography is perceived as a perfect means for documenting traditional music and its performances; on the other hand, it is criticised for popularising foreign patterns and causing undesirable changes in traditional musical cultures. Both points of view are dominated by the perspective of a researcher. This article approaches phonography from the vantage point of traditional musical culture participants in Poland based on opinions collected as part of field studies dedicated to other issues. The era of recording the real sounds was preceded by the stage of coding the intended sounds derived from foreign patterns, which undoubtedly made contemporary researchers ill-disposed to this type of devices. Five decades ago, Jadwiga Sobieska adopted such an approach to radio and radiophonisation, gramophone records and soundcards (audio recordings on postcards), and reel-to-reel tapes and compact cassettes. As a result, this discussion also focuses on these three media (carrier) types. While aware that this review does not exhaust the topic, the author proposes a perspective that is closer to the studied participants of culture, recognising other values and research problems that could serve as the starting point for further and more advanced research to ensure a more complete coverage of the analysed aspects of reality.

Key words: traditional music, radiophonisation, gramophone records, soundcards, radio cassette players

 

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Janczewska-Sołomko, Katarzyna. „Nagrania muzyki ludowej w Bibliotece Narodowej”. W: Polska muzyka tradycyjna – dziedzictwo fonograficzne. Stan aktualny – zachowanie – udostępnianie, red. Jacek P. Jackowski. Tom 1. Warszawa: Instytut Sztuki Polskiej Akademii Nauk, Stowarzyszenie Liber Pro Arte, 2017.

Jędruch-Włodarczyk, Małgorzata. „Polskie wydawnictwa fonograficzne z ludową muzyką taneczną”. W: Folk Dances Now and Then in the Light of Polish and Norwegian Experience. Tradycyjny taniec ludowy dawniej i dziś w świetle doświadczeń polskich i norweskich, red. Tomasz Nowak. Kielce: Wojewódzki Dom Kultury w Kielcach, 2011.

Kotarska, Justyna. Przestrzeń dźwiękowa wsi Janówka (pow. augustowski) dawniej i dziś. Próba zastosowania koncepcji R. Murraya Schafera [praca licencjacka napisana pod opieką Tomasza Nowaka]. Warszawa: Instytut Muzykologii UW, 2010.

Nowak, Tomasz. Tradycje muzyczne społeczności polskiej na Wileńszczyźnie. Opinie i zachowania. Warszawa: Towarzystwo Naukowe Warszawskie, Instytut Muzykologii UW, 2005.

Rudnicki, Rafał. „Pocztówki dźwiękowe prosto z PRL. Jak światowa muzyka trafiła do milionów Polaków dzięki... im samym?”. Komputerswiat.pl, 13 października 2021. https://www.komputerswiat.pl/artykuly/redakcyjne/pocztowki-dzwiekowe-prosto-z-prl-jak-swiatowa-muzyka-trafila-do-milionow-polakow/y63l2g5.

Schulz, Mat. „Kultura 2.0: Pocztówki dźwiękowe”. Dwutygodnik 68 (2011). https://www.dwutygodnik.com/artykul/2774-kultura-20-pocztowki-dzwiekowe.html.

Sobieska, Jadwiga. „Folklor muzyczny w dwudziestoleciu (1944–1964)”. W: Jadwiga Sobieska, Marian Sobieski. Polska muzyka ludowa i jej problemy, red. Ludwik Bielawski. Kraków: Polskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne, 1973.

Szymanowski, Karol. „O muzyce góralskiej”. Muzyka 1 (1930).

Woźniak, Beata. „Pocztówki dźwiękowe”. Weranda.pl. https://www.weranda.pl/sztuak-new/kolekcje-new/pocztowki-dzwiekowe.

Woźniak, Maciej. Pocztówki dźwiękowe. Mikołów: Instytut Mikołowski, 2014.

doi.org/10.26112/kw.2022.119.09

Based on the cover art of several albums from the first decade of rock music, this article shows the growing rank of the graphic design of music publications. Upon its birth, rock (and previously, rock and roll) paid little attention to the development of album graphic concepts. The primary objective was to present the artist and, frequently, include the list of works. However, in the mid-1960s, when rock musicians and their projects joined the ranks of what is known as higher art, album covers also started to be recognised as forms of artistic expression for photographers, painters and other artists, becoming something more than a mere invitation to listen to music. Communicating their aesthetics, album artwork began to emerge as a manifesto of its authors and a testimony to their self-identification. Both sophisticated designs and simple vinyl album covers of the late 1960s and early 1970s seem to have inspired many artists for decades, creating a space for an artistic dialogue. The most outstanding artists of that period, such as Andy Warhol, Peter Blake, Roger Dean and artistic groups such as Hipgnosis, did not shy away from cover art.

Key words: cover arts, vinyl records, rock, manifesto, declaration

 

Bibliography

Brzozowicz, Grzegorz, Filip Łobodziński. Sto płyt, które wstrząsnęły światem. Kronika czasów popkultury. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Iskry 2000.

Domino, Paweł. „Galaktyka Edisona. Estetyka wydawnicza płyt winylowych, kompaktowych i DVD”. Bibliotheka Nostra: Śląski kwartalnik naukowy 4, 4 (2011).

Gradowski, Mariusz. „Dziwny jest ten świat… – płyta, nie piosenka”. W: Czesław Niemen i jego płytowe dzieła, red. Edyta Chlebowska, Piotr Chlebowski. Lublin: Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski, 2014.

Kurek, Jacek. „Niemen odkrywca… (kilka myśli i sugestii)”. W: Czesław Niemen i jego płytowe dzieła 3, red. Edyta Chlebowska, Piotr Chlebowski. Lublin: Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski, 2020.

Kurek, Jacek. Rock i romantyzm. Notatki o muzyce i wyobraźni. Sosnowiec: GAD Records, Sosnowiec 2011.

Kurowski, Jerzy. Słynne płyty – słynne okładki. Olsztyn: Jerzy Kurowski, 2017.

Szaybo, Rosław, Marta Połap. „«Uwielbiam czuć ciarki na grzbiecie» – z Rosławem Szaybo rozmawia Marta Połap”. W: Analogowe serce muzyki. Wokół dwóch pierwszych edycji chorzowskiego Vinyl Festival (2017–2018), red. Beata Cieślak, Marta Połap. Chorzów: Gruba Bluesa, 2019.

Torzecki, Mateusz. Okładki płyt. Rzecz o wizualnym uniwersum albumów muzycznych. Poznań: Instytut Kultury Popularnej, 2015.

doi.org/10.26112/kw.2022.119.10

This article discusses the formative role of album productions by street performers (buskers). Based on the empirical material collected during field research – observations, conversations and interviews with street musicians (with excerpts quoted in the text) – as well as studies of literature, journals, media content (less frequently) and social life documents (such as legal regulations and brochures for street artists), it starts with presenting the general characteristics of album releases. The latter are divided into professional and amateur productions and are categorised by the function they perform (self-creation, artistic, advertising, commercial, popularisation, informative). The article also describes anthroponyms used in the albums, characterises street music types (original productions, anonymous projects and music by other artists) and emphasises the variability of performed works (occasional repertoire). The author paints a broader context by discussing the presence of art in public space (stage performances and the art of open urban spaces), the modified artist–addressee relationship and other phenomena related to busking.

Key words: street music, music in public space, amateur album productions, city soundscape, urban audiosphere

 

Bibliography

Augé, Marc. Nie-miejsca. Wprowadzenie do antropologii hipernowoczesności. Tłum. Roman Chymkowski. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, 2010.

Grygier, Ewelina. „Rozwój fonografii i procesy globalizacyjne a repertuar i wydawnictwa płytowe muzyków ulicy”. Muzyka 3 (2020).

Grygier, Ewelina. „The repertoire of street musicians in a time of globalisation”. W: Music Glocalization: Heritage and Innovation in a Digital Age, red. David Herbert, Mikołaj Rykowski. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Press, 2018.

Kloch, Zbigniew. „O przestrzeni miejskiej – kilka uwag z perspektywy teorii kultury”. W: Percepcja współczesnej przestrzeni miejskiej, red. Mikołaj Madurowicz. Warszawa: Wydział Geografii i Studiów Regionalnych UW, 2007.

Kominek, Mieczysław. Zaczęło się od fonografu… Kraków: Polskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne, 1986.

Kononenko, Natalie. Ukrainian Minstrels. And the Blind Shall Sing. London: Taylor & Francis, 1998.

Leary, Marc. Wywieranie wrażenia na innych: o sztuce autoprezentacji. Tłum. Anna Kacmajor, Magdalena Kacmajor. Gdańsk: Gdańskie Wydawnictwo Psychologiczne, 1999.

Potocka, Anna M. „Daj spokój, to tylko sztuka”. W: Publiczna przestrzeń dla sztuki?, red. Anna M. Potocka. Kraków, Wien: Bunkier Sztuki, Inter esse, Triton, 2002.

Romański, Marek. „Danzinger Strassenmusik”. Hi-Fi i Muzyka 5 (2004).

Schafer, Raymond Murray. „Muzyka środowiska”. Res Facta 9 (1982).

Schreiber, Ewa. Muzyka i metafora. Koncepcje kompozytorskie Pierre’a Schaeffera, Raymonda Murraya Schafera i Gérarda Griseya. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo NCK, 2012.

Weingarten, Gene. „Pearls before breakfast”. Washington Post, 8 kwietnia 2007.

doi.org/10.26112/kw.2022.119.11

This article focuses on the formative properties of physical audio carriers, both in terms of the sound matter itself and the listener’s activity. The culture of the sound carriers is confronted with the digital distribution of music, primarily streaming. The authors also discuss social media platforms in the context of music posted by users. The discussion revolves around changes occurring principally due to the emergence of new sound transmission and communication models. Differences and similarities between the analogue technology, represented by media types such as vinyl record and compact cassette, and modern streaming services offering digital music on demand in unprecedented quantities are analysed. Examples referring to both systems are provided, and music models characteristic of online content sharing are described. At the core of this analysis lies the audio carrier itself. Its creative and artistic applications extend far beyond the mere sound recording functions and influence the shape of music it contains.

Key words: culture of the medium, streaming, recording, analogue, sound

 

Bibliography

Brzostek, Dariusz. „Perwersyjne rozkosze audiofila. Między retromanią a obiektoseksualnością”. Kultura Współczesna 84, 4 (2014).

Cutler, Chris. O muzyce popularnej. Tłum. Ireneusz Socha. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Zielona Sowa, 1999.

Erhardt, Ludwik. Sztuka dźwięku. Warszawa: Wydawnictwa Artystyczne i Filmowe, 1980.

Faulstich, Werner. „Muzyka i medium. Szkic historiograficzny od początków do dzisiaj”. Tłum. Marek Kasprzyk. Images 7, 13–14 (2009).

Jonze, Tim. „How to make money from Spotify by streaming silence”. The Guardian, 19 marca 2014. https://www.theguardian.com/music/musicblog/2014/mar/19/spotify-streamingsilence-vulpeck-make-money.

Kapelański, Maksymilian. „Glenn Gould: cisza, fonosfera i muzyka w odległym zapisie”. Glissando 32, 3 (2017).

Kędziora, Piotr. „Design-oriented approach w badaniach nad muzyką (I): projektowanie inscenizacji i zaangażowane słuchanie ambientowe”. Prace Kulturoznawcze 25, 2 (2021).

Leonhard, Gerd. Music 2.0. Essays by Gerd Leonhard. Hämeenlinna: Hämeen Offset-Tiimi, 2008.

Mack, Zachary. „How streaming affects the lenghts of songs”. The Verge, 28 maja 2019. https://www.theverge.com/2019/5/28/18642978/music-streaming-spotify-song-length-distribution-production-switched-on-pop-vergecast-interview.

doi.org/10.26112/kw.2022.119.12

According to research, largely based on the musicians’ statements, the influence of the avant-garde duo Beaver & Krause on Pink Floyd’s album Dark Side of the Moon is limited to Dick Parry’s saxophone part in Us and Them, performed in the style of Gerry Mulligan from Gandharva, and Claire Torry’s vocal part referring to Patrice Holloway’s contribution to the song Walking’ on the same album. Seeking to expand this scope of observations, the article shows that Pink Floyd used many other ideas and innovative solutions of these pioneers of electronics. The band’s ground-breaking album contains the artistic transformations of the duo’s ideas in the form of vocalise, the sound of the saxophone, stylistic diversity of the work sections, methods of their integration and transformation, and the use of musique concrète. While in Beaver & Krause’s productions, the latter element refers, primarily, to the sounds of nature (animals) and, to a lesser extent, the industrial world, Pink Floyd reversed this hierarchy, with the city soundscape coming to the fore. What both groups have in common is their approach to human voice. Particularly on Pink Floyd’s album, the spoken text functions as a compositional link, if not a keystone of the structure.

Key words: album, musique concrète, studio, recording, VCS3

 

Bibliography

Baranowska, Klaudia. „Dziadek muzyki techno? Pierre Henry”. Glissando 12 (2007).

Blake, Mark. Pink Floyd. Prędzej świnie zaczną latać. Prawdziwa historia Pink Floyd. Tłum. Jakub Michalski. Kraków: Wydawnictwo SQN, 2012.

Böhme-Mehner, Tatjana. „Komponował zawsze i wszędzie… Nawet siebie samego: Luc Ferrari”. Glissando 12 (2007).

Chion, Michel. Guide des objets sonores. Pierre Schaeffer et la recherche musicale. Paris: Institut National de l’Audiovisuel/Buchet-Chastel, 1983.

Dwyer, Terence. Composing with Tape Recorders. Musique concrète for beginners. Wyd. 4. London: Oxford University Press, 1976.

Fitch, Vernon. Encyklopedia Pink Floyd. Tłum. Bogusław Lubański. Poznań: Wydawnictwo Kagra, 2002.

Gonin, Philippe. Pink Floyd Dark Side of the Moon. [b.m.w.]: Le mot et le reste: 2018.

Guesdon, Jean-Michel, Philippe Margotin. Pink Floyd All the Songs. The Story Behind Every Track. New York: Black Dog & Leventhal, 2017.

Harris, John. The Dark Side of the Moon. The Making of the Pink Floyd Masterpiece. Cambridge: Da Capo Press, 2005.

Holmes, Thom. Electronic and Experimental Music: Technology, Music, and Culture. Wyd. 6. New York, London: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, 2020.

Holm-Hudson, Kevin J. „«Worked out within the grooves» the sound and structure of The Dark Side of the Moon”. W: ‘Speak to Me’: The Legacy of Pink Floyd’s „The Dark Side of the Moon”, red. Russell Reising. Hamphisre (England), Burlington (USA): Ashgate Publishing 2005.

Manning, Peter. „Samotny pionier z Paryża Pierre Schaeffer”. Tłum. Agata Kwiecińska, Anna Pęcherzewska, Jan Topolski. Glissando 12 (2007).

Mason, Nick, Philip Dodd. Pink Floyd. Moje wspomnienia. Tłum. Tomasz Szmajter. Poznań: Wydawnictwo In Rock, 2005.

Pinch, Trevor, Frank Trocco. Analog Days. The Invention and Impact of the Moog Synthesizer. Cambridge MA, London: Harvard University Pres, 2004.

Povey, Glenn. Echa. Kompletna historia Pink Floyd. Tłum. Wiesław Weiss, Emilia Skowrońska, Marzena Beyer-Briks, Maria Siodłak. Poznań: Wydawnictwo In Rok, 2009.

Southall, Brian. Dark Side of the Moon Revealed. [b.m.w.]: Ovolo Books, 2013.

Weiss, Wiesław. O krowach, świniach, małpach, robakach oraz wszystkich utworach Pink Floyd. Poznań: Wydawnictwo In Rock, 2006.

doi.org/10.26112/kw.2022.119.13

The aim of this article is to analyse A History of Soundcards (1977–1978), a project by the German artist, composer and performer Christina Kubisch (b. 1948), considered to be a leading representative of the first generation of sonic art. Namely, this study examines soundcards (postcards making squeaky noise when pressed) – the unusual audio carriers used by Kubisch in her performances. This text discusses the material dimension of the tool chosen by the artist and its significance as an emancipatory project in the feminist discourse on the 1970s phonography. It combines the observations of the critical history of art (the adaptation of Foucault’s concept of counter-history) and cultural history of sound (ideas related to the ‘material turn’). Kubisch’s work is depicted in the context of the other important audio-visual phenomena of that period such as the famous 48 Portraits by Gerhard Richter (b. 1932) presented in the German pavilion during the 1972 Venice Biennale. Kubisch’s unconventional sonic art appears to be no longer an excluded discipline, largely ignored by art history, but rather emerges as its essential part. Escaping clear-cut classifications, Kubisch’s artistic oeuvre tests the available methodological tools and proves that the visually-centered attitude has lost its validity in the analysis of the contemporary cultural legacy.

Key words: sound performance, soundcard, counter-history, sonic emancipation project, sound art

 

Bibliography

Berger, Christian. „Wholly obsolete or always a possibility? Past and present trajectories of a ‘dematerialization’ of art”. W: Conceptualism and Materiality. Matters of art and politics, red. Christian Berger. Leiden, Boston: Brill, 2019.

Blackford, Andy. Disco Dancing Tonight: Clubs, dances, fashion, music. New York, London: Octopus Books, 1979.

Bradby, Barbara. „Sampling sexuality: gender, technology and the body in dance music”. Popular Music 12, 2 (1993).

Chanan, Michael. Repeated Takes. A short history of recording and its effects on music. London, New York: Verso, 1995.

Domańska, Ewa. Historie niekonwencjonalne. Poznań: Wydawnictwo Poznańskie, 2006.

Foucault, Michel. „Wykład z 28 stycznia 1976”. W: Michel Foucault. Trzeba bronić społeczeństwa. Wykłady w Collége de France, 1976. Tłum. Małgorzata Kowalska. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo KR, 1998.

Garratt, Sheryl. „Chicago house”. The Face 77 (1986).

Kizińska, Karolina. „Rola płci kulturowej w badaniach muzykologicznych – zarys pola badawczego muzykologii feministycznej”. Kultura i Edukacja 1 (2013).

Koskoff, Ellen. A Feminist Ethnomusicology. Writings on Music and Gender. Urbana, Chicago, Springfield: University of Illinois Press, 2014.

Kozak, Piotr. „Wzniosła utopia awangardy – aporie analityki wzniosłości”. Sztuka i Filozofia 38–39 (2011).

Lange-Berndt, Petra. „How to be complicit with materials”. W: Materiality, red. Petra Lange-Berndt. London: MIT, 2015.

Leister, Wiebke. „Photography in-the-round: Gerhard Richter’s «48 Portraits», 1972 and 1998”. Photographies 7, 2 (2014).

Lippard, Lucy R., red., Six Years: The dematerialization of the art object from 1966 to 1972. New York: Praeger, 1973.

McCartney, Andra. „Gender, genre, and electroacoustic soundmaking practices”. Intersections: Canadian Journal of Music 26, 2 (2006).

Richter, Gerhard. „Conversation with Mathias Schreiber (1972)”. W: Gerhard Richter: Text. Writings, Interviews and Letters, 1961–2007, red. Dietmar Elger, Hans U. Obrist. London: Thames & Hudson, 2009.

Rietveld, Hillegonda C. This is Our House. House music, cultural spaces and technologies. London: Routledge Revivals, 2019.

Skotarczak, Dorota. Historia wizualna. Poznań: Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2012.

Storr, Robert. Gerhard Richter: doubt and belief in painting. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 2003.

doi.org/10.26112/kw.2022.119.14


This article presents the evolution of reggae in Africa, particularly sub-Saharan Africa, and the socio-cultural significance of this genre of music in the local phonographic market. Interdisciplinary (sociological, anthropological and ethnomusicological) research instruments are employed in the analysis to combine the perspectives of the musicologist and ethnologist in the description of cultural change. First, the genesis of reggae is outlined in the introduction. Second, the process of acculturation of reggae music in Africa is described. Third, the role of reggae is discussed in the contexts of decolonisation, crises of postcolonial statehoods and projects of political reforms, multiethnicity of societies, Rastafari and changes in terms of religiosity, and the evolution of the geopolitical imaginary. The problematic issue of gender equality in reggae, music performed mainly by men, is also emphasised. Finally, the status of reggae artists is compared to griots (bards and storytellers in Africa, who also act as folk tribunes, commentators of social life and therapists of local communities), while cassettes and music records are compared to carriers of historical memory or anti-system and countercultural instruments of political agitation.

Key words: music, reggae, Rastafari, Africa, postcolonialism

 

Bibliography

Bourdieu, Pierre. Dystynkcja: Społeczna krytyka władzy sądzenia. Tłum. Piotr Biłos. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Scholar, 2005.

Chevannes, Barry. Rastafari: Roots and Ideology. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1994.

Clarke, Sebastian. Jah Music: The Evolution of the Popular Jamaican Song. London: Heinemann Educational Books, 1980.

Cooper, Carolyn. Sound Clash: Jamaican Dancehall Culture at Large. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.

Davis, Stephen, Peter Simon. Reggae International. New York: Rogner and Bernh, 1982.

Edmonds, Ennis B. Rastafari: From Outcasts to Culture Bearers. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Frith, Simon. Sceniczne rytuały. O wartości muzyki popularnej. Tłum. Marek Król. Kraków: Wydawnictwo UJ, 2011.

Gawrycki, Marcin F. (I)grając ze smakiem. Muzyka, tożsamość i polityka na Karaibach. Warszawa: Wydawnictwa UW, 2013.

Gilroy, Paul. The Black Atlantic. Modernity and Double Consciousness. London, New York: Verso, 1993.

Gołaszewski, Sławomir. Reggae Rastafari. Bydgoszcz: Manufaktura Legenda, 1990.

Jabłońska, Barbara. Socjologia muzyki. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Scholar, 2014.

Price, Charles. Becoming Rasta: Origins of Rastafari Identity in Jamaica. New York: New York University Press, 2009.

Savishinsky, Neil J. „Rastafari in the promised land: the spread of a Jamaican socioreligious movement among the youth of West Africa”. African Studies Review 37, 3 (1994).

Schütz, Alfred. „Wspólne tworzenie muzyki. Studium relacji społecznych”. W: Alfred, Schütz. O wielości światów. Szkice z socjologii fenomenologicznej. Tłum. Barbara Jabłońska. Kraków: Zakład Wydawniczy Nomos, 2008.

Vansina, Jan. De la tradition orale: essai de méthode historique. Tervuren: Musée royal de l’Afrique centrale, 1961.

doi.org/10.26112/kw.2022.119.15


This article analyses the musical layer of the currently extremely popular short videos, circulating in cyberspace, for example, on TikTok. As a new sphere of musical practices, these forms are attracting increasingly larger audiences, with active users recruiting particularly from among the youngest. As a result, prosumers have been given an unprecedented opportunity to create short, emergent, sound-based messages using primarily popular music. The article describes the growing ties between music and other media components due to media convergence, while also highlighting the role of music in the process of media divergence. The methods of mixing musical and extra-musical meanings as part of the bottom-up remix culture are also analysed. The processes described in the text lead to the emergence of grassroots musical cyberpractices as part of a new multimedia form where the reformulated fragmented popular music – this highly intersubjective artifact of intermedia culture inseparably linked with image – plays a dominant role. As one of the most significant novelties in the recent development of cyberculture, this trend appears to be overcoming the visual centricity of the contemporary web, which has been repeatedly described in the literature of the subject.

Key words: popular music, remix, convergence, TikTok, short videos

 

Bibliography

Jabłońska, Barbara. „Muzyka – media – kultura”. Kultura Współczesna 96, 3 (2017).

Jabłońska, Barbara. Socjologia muzyki. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Scholar, 2014.

Kopecka-Piech, Katarzyna. „Koncepcje konwergencji mediów”. Studia Medioznawcze 46, 3 (2011).

Kopecka-Piech, Katarzyna. Leksykon konwergencji mediów. Kraków: Universitas, 2015.

Lessig, Laurence. Remiks. Aby sztuka i biznes rozkwitały w hybrydowej gospodarce. Tłum. Rafał Próchniak. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Akademickie i Profesjonalne, 2009.

Levinson, Paul. Nowe nowe media. Tłum. Maria Zawadzka-Strączek. Kraków: Wydawnictwo WAM, 2010.

McLuhan, Marshall. Wybór tekstów. Tłum. Ewa Różalska, Jacek M. Stokłosa. Poznań: Wydawnictwo Zysk i S-ka, 2001.

Nacher, Anna. „Remiks i mashup – o niełatwym współbrzmieniu dwóch cyberkulturowych metafor”. Przegląd Kulturoznawczy 9, 1 (2011).

Napiórkowski Marcin, Artur Szarecki, Paweł Dobrosielski, Piotr Filipowski, Olga Kaczmarek. „Kultura wernakularna. Antropologia projektów nieudanych”. Kultura Współczesna 87, 3 (2015).

Pierzchała, Piotr. Polska piosenka pop jako tekst w tekście kultury: na przykładach z pierwszej dekady XXI wieku [praca doktorska]. Katowice: Uniwersytet Śląski, 2014.

Piotrowski, Grzegorz. Muzyka popularna. Nasłuchy i namysły. Warszawa: Państwowy Instytut Wydawniczy, 2015.

Rettberg, Jill Walker. „Hand signs for lipsyncing: The emergence of a gestural language on Musical.ly as a video-based equivalent to emoji”. Social Media + Society 4, 3 (2017).

Szczęsna, Ewa. „Tekst wieloznakowy w przestrzeni mediów cyfrowych. U podstaw poetyki semiotycznej”. Przegląd Humanistyczny 4 (2013).

Szpunar, Magdalena. „Czym są nowe media – próba konceptualizacji”. Studia Medioznawcze 4 (2008).

Szpunar, Magdalena. „Emotywne aspekty recepcji muzycznej”. Kultura Współczesna 96, 3 (2017).

Szpunar, Magdalena. „Kultura obrazu a ikonosfera Internetu”. Studia Medioznawcze 34, 3 (2008).

Review

doi.org/10.26112/kw.2022.119.16

Mazierska, Ewa, Mariusz Gradowski. Czeslaw Niemen’s Niemen Enigmatic. New York: Bloomsbury Academic, 2022.

Key words: Niemen, popular music, music analysis, rock, music criticism