Disability and technology

Kultura Współczesna. Teoria, Interpretacje, Praktyka
nr 3(102)/2018
Disability and technology


Magdalena Zdrodowska, Sylwia Kołos

Introduction. Disability – techniques of support, techniques of representation

Magdalena Zdrodowska

Technology as a tool of social distinction. Unobvious relations between technology and disability

Beata Borowska-Beszta

Artifacts, military culture and technologies in the service of veterans with disabilities

Wojciech Otto

The strategy of an intermediary in presenting disability on the screen in terms of evolving film technologies and language of motion picture

Katarzyna Ojrzyńska

From the idea of progress to the technology of extermination. The exhibition Progress and Hygiene and other cultural references to the Nazi extermination of people with disabilities

Anetta Luto-Kamińska

Exploring the 16th-century world of medicinal products and treatments for all kinds of maladies

Sylwia Kołos

From tuberculosis to electric eye. Medicine, disabilities and technology in the Polish film chronicle

Bartosz Wieremiej

Visibility, compensation and control. Video game characters with disabilities

Aleksandra Powierska

Selfies: crafting one’s image and the emancipatory role of photography in representing people with disabilities



Sławomir Łotysz

Penicillin and prostheses. UNRRA’s help in rehabilitating Poland’s medical industries after World War II

Juliusz Iwanicki, Beata Iwanicka

Deaf culture and hearing assistive technologies. Between cyborgization and neo-luddism of the deaf and hard of hearing

Robert Więckowski

“The cloud” of art accessible online



Jerzy Olek


Katarzyna Wiącek

The bidonville architecture in Casablanca



Agnieszka Kaczmarek

The indivisible and its limits

Magdalena Juźwik

In the circus triad

Magdalena Szewerniak

Return to interpretation or the Interpretative Dictionary of Cultural Terms 2.0

Disability and technology


Assistive technologies are solutions designed to improve everyday functioning of people with disabilities. However, critical analysis of this concept may lead to surprising conclusions. If under the term of assistive technologies we understand solutions that support everyday functioning of human body and mind, it turns out that in fact every technology could be considered to be assistive in one way or another. Nevertheless, commonly used technologies are identified as assistive only when they are intended for users with disabilities. This indicates how ambiguous this concept is and that assistive technology (just like disability) is in fact a social and cultural construct.

Key words: history of technology, disability, assistive technologies, medicalization, telephone



Bauman, H-Dirksen L., Joseph J. Murray. Deaf Gain. Raising the Stakes for Human Diversity. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2014.

Blyth, Tilly, red., Information Age. Six Networks that Changed our World. London: Scala Arts & Heritage Publishers, 2014.

Bouck, Emily C., Jordan C. Shurr, Kinsey Tom, Andrea D. Jasper, Laura Bassette, Bridget Miller, Sara M. Flanagan. „Fix it with TAPE. Repurposing technology to be assistive technology for students with high-incidence disabilities”. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth 56, 2 (2012).

Bouck, Emily C., Rajiv Satsangi, Whitney Bartlett, Pei-Lin Weng. „Promoting indepen dence through assistive technology. Evaluating audio recorders to support grocery shopping”. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities 47, 4 (2012).

Conrad, Peter. The Medicalization of Society. On the Transformation of Human Conditions into Treatable Disorders. Baltimore–London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007.

De Witt, John C. „The role of technology in removing barriers”. The Milbank Quarterly 69, supl. 1–2 (1991).

Edyburn, Dave L. „Rethinking assistive technology”. Special Education Technology Practice 5, 4 (2004).

Forgave, Karen E. „Assitive technology. Empowering students with learning disabilities”. The Clearing House 75, 3 (2002).

Guffey, Elizabeth. Designing Disability. Symbols, Space, and Society. London–Oxford: Bloomsbury Academic, 2018.

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. https://sites.ed.gov/idea/.

Malinowski, Bronisław. „Czym jest kultura?”. W: Antropologia kultury. Zagadnienia i wybór tekstów, red. Andrzej Mencwel. Warszawa: Wydawnictwa Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, 2001.

McLuhan, Marshall. Zrozumieć media. Przedłużenia człowieka. Tłum. Natalia Szczucka. Warszawa: Wydawnictwa Naukowo-Techniczne, 2004.

Parette, Howard P., Brian W. Wojcik, Jack J. Hourcade, George R. Peterson-Karlan. „Assistive technology for students with mild disabilities: what’s cool and what’s not”. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities 40, 3 (2005).

Siebers, Tobin. „Disability as masquarade”. Literature and Medicine 23, 1 (2004).

Smith, Diane C. „Assistive technology: funding options and strategies”. Mental and Physical Disability Law Reporter 22, 1 (1998).


The article deals with advanced technology and its basic applications used to support military veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), presenting it in the context of military culture, or more narrowly, the culture of soldiers who have become veterans. The text discusses problems with defining the disability in veterans with PTSD acquired during active military service, analyzes such values as health and fitness in terms of military culture, and identifies specific needs in providing assistance to military veterans, including technology as a discreet tool intended to improve their cognitive, emotional, mental and social functioning, and everyday life skills. It also outlines various rehabilitation possibilities with the use of computers, the Internet, online communication, and virtual reality (VR).

Key words: military culture, veterans, PTSD, technology, online assistance, virtual reality (VR)



Barnes, Colin. „Cabbage Syndrome”. The Social Construction of Dependence. Lewes: Falmer Press, 1990.

Barnes, Colin. „The social model of disability: myths and misconceptions. Coalition. Greater Manchester Coalition of Disabled People’s Journal sierpień (1996).

Barnes, Colin, Geof Mercer, Tom Shakespeare. Exploring Disability. A Sociological Introduction. Oxford: Polity Press, 1999.

Borowska-Beszta, Beata. „Anatema szoku kulturowego w andragogice specjalnej”. Edukacja Otwarta 2, 2 (2008).

Borowska-Beszta, Beata. „Wkład antropologii kulturowej w studia nad niepełnosprawnością”. Interdyscyplinarne Konteksty Pedagogiki Specjalnej 15, 3 (2016).

Coll, Jose E., Eugenia L. Weiss, Jeffrey S. Yarvis. „No one leaves unchanged. Insights for civilian mental health care professionals into the military experience and culture”. Social Work in Health Care 50, 7 (2011).

Cucciare, Michael A., Kenneth R. Weingardt, red., Using Technology to Support Evidence- -Based Behavioral Health Practices. A Clinician’s Guide. New York: Routledge, 2010.

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-5. Wyd. 5. Arlington: American Psychiatric Association Publishing, 2013.

Exum, Herbert A., Jose E. Coll, Eugenia Weiss. A Civilian Counselor’s Primer for Counseling Veterans. Wyd. 2. Deerpark, NY: Linus Publications, 2011. 

Hsu, Jeanette. Overview of military culture. Wrzesień 2010. http://sttpml.org/wp-content/ uploads/2014/06/military-culture.pdf.

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Kozłowska, Małgorzata. „Wirtualna rzeczywistość (ang. Virtual reality – VR) jako skuteczne narzędzie terapii fobii społecznej. Ogrody Nauk i Sztuk 2 (2012).

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Schultze, Nils-Günter. „Success factors in Internet-based psychological counseling”. Cyber Psychology and Behavior 9, 5 (2006).

Stasieńko, Agnieszka, Iwona Sarzyńska-Długosz. „Zastosowanie rzeczywistości wirtualnej w rehabilitacji neurologicznej. Virtual reality in neurorehabilitation”. Postępy Rehabilitacji 30, 4 (2016).

Taylor, Steven, Bonnie Shoultz, Pamela Walker, red., Disability Studies: Information and Resources. Listopad 2003. http://thechp.syr.edu/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/Disability_Studies_2003_current.

Weiss, Eugenia, Jose E. Coll. „Influence of military culture and veteran worldviews on mental health treatment”. The International Journal of Health, Wellness and Society 1, 2 (2011).


In Polish cinema disability is not a marginal phenomenon. It is commonly depicted through images of people with disabilities, often shown in the context of social stereotypes, and strategies of their presentation as adopted by filmmakers. They might include the strategy of a witness, activist, craftsman, artist, etc. Each of them determines the author’s approach to the topic, and the purpose of such production. With the advancements in technology, the most representative strategy seems to be that of an intermediary which provides for the use of modern and innovative means of expression in film production, including special effects and intentional deconstruction of the narrative. By adopting this strategy, the filmmakers try to reach the psyche and inner self of their film character who is disabled, thus constructing his or her image on the screen with a variety of sophisticated means of expression. Such approach is characteristic not only of popular culture productions, but also of independent art films. It allows to address mass audience, often young viewers, and their demand for highly attractive images, as well as to recognize the authors’ need to talk about difficult and controversial topics in an original and convincing manner.

Key words: film language, disability, strategy, technology



Barnes, Colin. Wizerunki niepełnosprawności i media. Tłum. Mariusz D. Dastych. Warszawa: Ogólnopolski Sejmik Osób Niepełnosprawnych, 1997.

Bławut, Jacek. Bohater w filmie dokumentalnym. Łódź: Wydawnictwo PWSFTviT, 2010.

Fornalik, Izabela. „Wizerunki osób niepełnosprawnych w mediach – media w percepcji niepełnosprawnych”. W: Świat pełen znaczeń – kultura i niepełnosprawność, red. Jolanta Baran, Sławomir Olszewski. Kraków: Oficyna Wydawnicza „Impuls”, 2006.

Foucault, Michel. Historia szaleństwa w dobie klasycyzmu. Tłum. Helena Kęszycka. Warszawa: Państwowy Instytut Wydawniczy, 1987.

Goffman, Erving. Stigma. Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity. New York: Touchstone, 1986.

Lubelski, Tadeusz. Strategie autorskie w polskim filmie fabularnym lat 1945–1961. Kraków: Wydawnictwo „Rabid”, 2000.

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Otto, Wojciech. Obrazy niepełnosprawności w polskim filmie. Poznań: Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2012.

Pięta, Agnieszka. „Rola mediów w kształtowaniu postaw wobec niepełnosprawności”. W: Postawy wobec niepełnosprawności, red. Lucyna Frąckiewicz. Katowice: Wydawnictwo Uczelniane Akademii Ekonomicznej, 2002.

Zakrzewska-Manterys, Elżbieta. „Wizerunek medialny dziecka niepełnosprawnego”. W: Dziecko we współczesnej kulturze medialnej, red. Beata Łaciak. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Instytutu Spraw Publicznych, 2003.

Zwierzchowski, Piotr. „Doświadczanie inności”. Polonistyka 5 (2004).


The article starts with a general reflection on the extermination technology developed by the German Nazis to effect mass murder of psychiatric patients. It discusses the references to these often neglected and largely forgotten historical facts that are conspicuous in the exhibition Progress and Hygiene and other cultural texts. The author analyzes the manner in which the exhibition reminds its viewers of these events and exposes the forms of operation of various Foucauldian technologies that enable control over individuals and societies.

Key words: Nazi extermination of people with disabilities, exhibition: Progress and Hygiene, Michel Foucault, technologies of extermination, memory



Bauman, Zygmunt. Nowoczesność i Zagłada. Tłum. Tomasz Kunz. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Literackie, 2009.

Dziewit-Meller, Anna. Góra Tajget. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo „Wielka Litera”, 2016.

Foucault, Michel. „Technologies of the self”. W: Technologies of the Self. A Seminar with Michel Foucault, red. Luther H. Martin, Huck Gutman, Patrick H. Hutton. London: Tavistock, 1988.

Foucault, Michel. „Wykład z 17 marca 1976”. W: Michel Foucault. Trzeba bronić społeczeństwa. Wykłady w Collège de France, 1976. Tłum. Małgorzata Kowalska. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo KR, 1998.

Friedlander, Henry. The Origins of Nazi Genocide. From Euthanasia to the Final Solution. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1995.

Hojan, Artur, Cameron Munro. „Techniki Zagłady w nazistowskich akcjach eutanazyjnych na terenie Kraju Warty (1939–1940)”. W: Zagłada chorych psychicznie. Pamięć i historia, red. Tadeusz Nasierowski, Grażyna Herczyńska, Dariusz M. Myszka. Warszawa: Eneteia, 2012.

Lem, Stanisław. Szpital przemienienia. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Literackie, 1955.

Mill, John S. Utylitaryzm. O wolności. Tłum. Amelia Kurlandzka, Maria Ossowska. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, 2005.

Morawiec, Arkadiusz. „«Dezynfekcja». Literatura polska wobec eksterminacji osób psychicznie chorych”. Przestrzenie Teorii 27 (2017).

Morawski, Piotr. „Będzie śmierdział zgniłym jajem”. Dwutygodnik.com 164, 7 (2015). http:// www.dwutygodnik.com/artykul/6042-bedzie-smierdzial-zgnilym-jajem.html.

Ojrzyńska, Katarzyna. „O leczeniu społecznej amnezji. Akcja T4 w kulturze współczesnej”. W: Odzyskiwanie obecności. Niepełnosprawność w teatrze i performansie, red. Ewelina Godlewska-Byliniak, Justyna Lipko-Konieczna. Warszawa: Fundacja Teatru 21, 2017. 

Parzer, Robert. „The murder of psychiatric patients by Nazi perpetrators in occupied Poland”. W: Occupation, Annihilation, Forced Labour. Papers from the 20th Workshop on the History and Memory of National Socialist Concentration Camps, red. Fré dé ric Bonnesoeur, Philipp Dinkelaker, Sarah Kleinmann, Jens Kolata, Anja Reuss. Berlin: Metropol, 2017.

Rottenberg, Anda, red., Postęp i higiena/Progress and Hygiene. Warszawa: Zachęta Narodowa Galeria Sztuki, 2015.

Skrabanek, Petr. The Death of Humane Medicine and the Rise of Coercive Healthism. Altrincham: The Social Affairs Unit, 1994.

Söderfeldt, Ylva. „Who belongs in the murder clinic? The trouble with Nebel im August”. Public Disability History 1 (2016). https://www.public-disabilityhistory.org/2016/10/who-belongs-in-murder-clinic-trouble.html.


The research material for the article was based on Polish medical texts from the 16th century which present a valuable source of knowledge about the past concepts of health and disease, as well as diagnostic and therapeutic options available at that time. These early printed texts shed light on what other things, apart from health, were important to people in the times of Renaissance, and what advice was popularly sought. The cited medical works provide answers to many questions, including instructions how to get rid of freckles and wrinkles, dye hair, whiten teeth or obtain a dream figure. They also offer practical advice on how to eat, care for hygiene, and even how to check if one’s wife was faithful. The lead motif of the article does not seem to differ much from what constitutes an important component of life and research also in the 21st century.

Key words: Renaissance medicine, Renaissance medical texts, 16th-century medicinal and care products, past concepts of a disease


Bibliografia i źródła

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Budny, Szymon. Nowy Testament [...]. Łosk: Daniel z Łęczycy, 1574.

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The author of the text draws on the Polish Film Chronicle (PKF, Polska Kronika Filmowa) in which the subject of disability and illnesses is presented in a very original manner compared to the Chronicle’s typical propaganda contents. Appearing as early as in the first episodes after World War II, with minor exceptions, it remains free of propaganda accents. Instead a stronger emphasis is put on issues related to advancements in medicine, medical technologies and therapies. One of the most interesting topics addressed in the Chronicle are Polish health resorts and sanatoriums, among which the ones intended for children were of particular importance. The article also discusses the poetics of the films, ways of presenting the diseases and therapies in the PKF. The author examines popular episodes about disabilities, medicine and physical therapy, exploring what and how was accentuated by the filmmakers, what characters, patients and convalescents, they were particularly interested in, and how the narrative of the chronicles changed between the 1940s and 1970s.

Key words: Polish Film Chronicle, disability, sanatorium, health resort, tuberculosis, electric eye



Flejert-Wojciechowicz, Agata. „Historia badań nad gruźlicą”. Internetowa Gazeta Medyczna 74 (2015).

Jezierski, Grzegorz. „Krótka historia promieniowania rentgenowskiego w Polsce”. Analecta 1–2, 36–37 (2010).


Characters with disabilities do not often appear in video games. In fact, there are hundreds of virtual worlds in which disability is practically absent, invisible, almost unacceptable. The article aims to draw attention to how characters with disabilities function in the game environment. What changes when we are in charge of or when we otherwise interact with a character with disability? What impact does the presence of such figures have on the space and environment of the game?

Key words: disability, video games, space, limitations



Brzozowska-Brywczyńska, Maja. „Ciała osobliwe w przestrzeni freak/talk show”. Przegląd Socjologii Jakościowej 8, 2 (2015).

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Ellis, Katie, Mike Kent. Disability and New Media. New York – London: Routhledge, 2011.

Ellis, Katie. Disability and Popular Culture. Focusing Passion, Creating Community and Expressing Defiances. Farnham: Ashgate, 2015.

Klevjer, Rune. „Enter the avatar. The phenomenology of prosthetic telepresence in computer games”. W: The Philosophy of Computer Games, red. John R. Sageng, Hallvard Fossheim, Tarjei Mandt Larsen. New York: Springer, 2012.

Mitchell, David T., Sharon L. Snyder. Narrative Prosthesis Disability and the Dependencies of Discourse. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2000.

Rodan, Debbie, Katie Ellis, Pia Lebeck. Disability, Obesity and Ageing. Popular Media Identifications. Farnham: Ashgate, 2014.

Snyder, Sharon L., David T. Mitchell. „Body genres. An anatomy of disability in film”. W: The Problem Body. Projecting Disability on Film, red. Sally Chivers, Nicole Markotić. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 2010. 

Warpefelt, Henrik. The Non-Player Character – Exploring the Believability of NPC Presentation and Behavior. Stockholm: Stockholm University, 2016.

Wolski, Paweł. Niepełnosprawność ruchowa. Między diagnozą a działaniem. Warszawa: Centrum Rozwoju Zasobów Ludzkich, 2013.


The article aims to analyze the importance of selfies as an emancipatory tool used by people with disabilities. As observed by Jose van Dijck, in the era of new technologies the value of individual photographs and images as private memorabilia is decreasing while their potential in the area of social communication is on the rise; photos are turning into a visual language. Major role is here played by selfies, self-portraits intended as a form of self-presentation and self-creation. The person presented is at the same time the presenter who gives meaning to his or her own image, indirectly imposing it on others. A selfie has become a tool of emancipation for people with disabilities. Having regained their own look, they can oppose the looks from others which often express compassion, surprise or rejection. Similarly to selfie-feminism, which is to fight the power of the male gaze, selfies of people with disabilities are to fight the power of the gaze as such, with social media as the main frontline. In the article, a selfie is analyzed with respect to the theory of visual language (van Dijck, Rubinstein), and research on crafting one’s own image online.

Key words: social media, selfie, disability, self-presentation



Payne, Deborah A., Huhana Hickey, Anna Nelson, Katherine Rees, Henrietta Bollinger, Stephanie Hartley. „Physically disabled women and sexual identity: a PhotoVoice study”. Disability and Society 8, 31 (2016).

Rubinstein, Daniel. „Cellphone photography. The death of the camera and the arrival of visible speech”. Academia.edu. http://www.academia.edu/182542/Cellphone_photography_ The_death_of_the_camera_and_the_arrival_of_visible_speech. 

Sahaj, Tomasz. „Repozycjonowanie osób niepełnosprawnych w przekazach medialnych na przykładach wybranych kampanii społecznych”. Acta Universitatis Lodziensis 60 (2017).

Shah, Reena, Ruchi Tewari. „Demystifying «selfie»: a rampant social media activity”. Behaviour and Information Technology 35, 10 (2016).

Sorokowski, Piotr, Agnieszka Sorokowska, Anna Oleszkiewicz, Tomasz Frackowiak, Anna M. Huk, Katarzyna Pisanski. „Selfie posting behaviors are associated with narcissism among men”. Personality and Indyvidual Differences 85 (2015).

Tembeck, Tamar. „Selfies of ill health. Online autopathographic photography and the dramaturgy of the everyday”. Social Media + Society. Styczeń–marzec 2016. http://journals. sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/2056305116641343.

Van Dijck, José. „Digital photography: communication, identity, memory”. Visual Communication 1, 7 (2008).

Veum, Aslaug, Linda V. Moland Undrum. „The selfie as a global discourse”. Discourse and Society 29, 1 (2018).

Zhao, Sumin, Michele Zappavigna. „Beyond the self. Intersubjectivity and the social semiotic interpretation of the selfie”. New Media and Society 20, 5 (2018).

Contexts of disability


When World War II came to an end, the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) offered substantial aid to many countries, including Poland. It provided food, medicine and clothing to millions of war victims, and also provided ‘help to self-help’ the nations as a whole, by assisting local government entities in reconstructing industry, agriculture, and transportation infrastructure in the war-torn countries. For example, a penicillin factory and a prosthetic production facility were built in Poland as part of the UNRRA program. This paper draws a comparison between disabled veterans and the early postwar states. The latter, also significantly affected by the war, had to be similarly aided and rehabilitated in order to regain their ability to perform their everyday duties. The article sheds light on how the artificial limb plant program was negotiated to meet the needs of Poland and its war veterans. The research was carried out with financial support from the National Science Centre, Poland, under Research Grant No. 2014/13/B/ HS3/04951.

Key words: UNRRA, post-war reconstruction, pharmaceutical industry, war veterans, prostheses, disability



Atkinson, Oriana. „A few Posies”. W: As We See Russia, praca zbior. Overseas Press Club of America. New York: E.P. Dutton & Company, 1948.

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Marks, Bogusław. „Pomoc UNRRA w odbudowie gospodarki Polski (1945–1947)”. Acta Universitatis Lodziensis: Politologia 19 (1990).

Parsons, Talcott. The Social System. New York: The Free Press, 1951.

Reinisch, Jessica. „‘Auntie UNRRA’ at the crossroads”. Past and Present 218, supl. 8 (2013).

Reinisch, Jessica. „‘We shall rebuild anew a powerful nation’: UNRRA, internationalism and national reconstruction in Poland”. Journal of Contemporary History 43, 3 (2008).

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Woodbridge, George. UNRRA. The History of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration, Prepared by a Special Staff under the Direction of George Woodbridge, Chief Historian of UNRRA. New York: Columbia University Press, 1950.


The article focuses on hearing assistive technologies for hearing impaired people, and analyzes them in terms of the development of Deaf Culture. The culture of this community manifests itself through their attachment to the use of sign language and in various artistic activities which strengthen the identity of the members and supporters. With various assistive technologies available (particularly hearing aids and cochlear implants), a cultural dilemma arises related on the one hand to the cyborgisation and on the other hand to the neo-Luddism of the deaf and hard of hearing. Most of them avail of technology, but at the price of a certain level of cyborgization. However, there is a minority in Deaf Culture which, wishing to preserve its Deaf identity, rejects technology, thus subscribing to the technophobic process of opposing technological devices and machines, initiated by the Luddites in the 19th century.

Key words: Deaf Culture, hearing aids, cochlear implants, sign language, cyborgization



Bollag, Fiona. Wyszłam z krainy ciszy. Historia głuchoniemej dziewczyny, która odzyskała słuch. Tłum. Mieczysław Dutkiewicz. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo KDC, 2007.

Chrzanowska, Iwona. Pedagogika specjalna: od tradycji do współczesności. Kraków: Oficyna Wydawnicza „Impuls”, 2015.

Czech, Franciszek, Bartosz Kosiński, Ewa Mazurek, Krzysztof Wąchal, Elżbieta Wiącek. Nie bądź głuchy na kulturę. Raport finalny – analiza szans i barier uczestnictwa osób głuchych w życiu artystyczno-kulturalnym w Polsce. Kraków: „Między Uszami” Krakowska Fundacja Rozwoju Edukacji Niesłyszących im. M. Mazurka, 2014.

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Iwanicka, Beata. „Bariery i przykłady wsparcia w procesie edukacji w środowisku osób z wadami słuchu”. Studia Edukacyjne 43 (2017). 

Iwanicka, Beata. „Jak wspomagać rozwój dziecka z wadą słuchu, nim przekroczy próg szkoły. Perspektywy osoby niesłyszącej”. W: Dziecko z wadą słuchu u progu szkoły, red. Anna Jakoniuk-Diallo. Poznań: Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2017.

Kopciewicz, Lucyna. „Cyborgizacje: perspektywy, wyobrażenia, projekty edukacyjne”. Ars Educandi 13 (2016).

Krakowiak, Kazimiera. Dar języka. Podręcznik metodyki wychowania językowego dzieci i młodzieży z uszkodzeniami narządu słuchu. Lublin: Wydawnictwo KUL, 2012.

Łach, Tomasz. „Strach przed postępem – kilka uwag o nurtach antytechnicznych”. Kultura i Wartości 4 (2012).

Marschark, Mark, Patricia E. Spencer, red., The Oxford Handbook of Deaf Studies, Language, and Education. T. 2. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.

Podgórska-Jachnik, Dorota. Głusi. Emancypacje. Łódź: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Wyższej Szkoły Pedagogicznej w Łodzi, 2013.

Sacks, Oliver. Zobaczyć głos. Podróż do świata ciszy. Tłum. Adam Małaczyński. Poznań: Wydawnictwo Zysk i S-ka, 2011.

Szczepankowski, Bogdan, Dorota Koncewicz. Język migowy w terapii. Łódź: Wyższa Szkoła Pedagogiczna w Łodzi, 2008.

Woźnicka, Elżbieta, red., Tożsamość społeczno-kulturowa głuchych. Łódź: Polski Związek Głuchych – Oddział Łódzki, 2007.


Dissemination of art online is nowadays a global practice adopted by many museums and galleries. While the reasons behind it may be diverse, one of them is to provide access to works of art and art spaces to people with disabilities. The article analyzes the legitimacy of using modern technologies in communication with people with disabilities, and presents examples of solutions implemented in Polish social and cultural reality in order to make art accessible to people with disabilities. It also identifies opportunities and threats that may arise in connection with such communication model between cultural institutions and people with disabilities.

Key words: modern technologies, Internet, art, disability, accessibility



Bachórz, Agata, Karolina Ciechorska-Kulesza, Sławomir Czarnecki, Martyna Grabowska, Jakub Knera, Lesław Michałowski, Krzysztof Stachura, Stanisław Szultka, Cezary Obracht-Prondzyński, Piotr Zbieranek. Punkty styczne: między kulturą a praktyką (nie)uczestnictwa. Gdańsk: Instytut Kultury Miejskiej, 2014.

Bakhshi, Hasan, David Throsby. „New technologies in cultural institutions. Theory, evidence and policy implications”. International Journal of Cultural Policy 18, 2 (2018).

Dejnaka, Agnieszka. „Internet bez barier – accessibility oraz usability a potrzeby osób niepełnosprawnych”. Niepełnosprawność – Zagadnienia, Problemy, Rozwiązania 3, 2 (2012).

Figiel, Wojciech. Tożsamość i status tłumaczy z dysfunkcją wzroku, 2017 [niepublikowana praca doktorska obroniona na Wydziale Lingwistyki Stosowanej Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego].

Gorajewska, Danuta. „Osoby niepełnosprawne w społeczeństwie równych szans”. W: Społeczeństwo równych szans. Tendencje i kierunki zmian, red. Danuta Gorajewska. Warszawa: Stowarzyszenie Przyjaciół Integracji, 2005.

Jakubowski, Stanisław, Róża Serafin, Bogdan Szczepankowski. Pomoce techniczne dla osób niepełnosprawnych. Warszawa: Centrum Naukowo-Badawcze Spółdzielczości Inwalidów, 1994.

Krysiak, Monika, Szymon Głowania. „Wpływ zastosowań nowoczesnych technologii na atrakcyjność i popularność muzeów w Polsce”. W: Biznes w kulturze – kultura w biznesie. Nowoczesne technologie informacyjno-komunikacyjne, red. Anna Kwiecień, Beata Reformat. Katowice: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego, 2017.

Lewandowska, Kamila. „Nowe technologie a uczestnictwo w kulturze [Kultura się Liczy!]”. Narodowe Centrum Kultury. 3 lutego 2016. https://nck.pl/szkolenia-i-rozwoj/projekty/kultura-sie-liczy-/blog/nowe-technologie-a-uczestnictwo-w-kulturze-kultura-sie-liczy-.

Plichta, Piotr. „Wyniki badań nad korzystaniem z internetu przez osoby z niepełnosprawnością intelektualną – praktyczne implikacje”. W: Cyberbullying. Zjawisko, konteksty, przeciwdziałanie, red. Jacek Pyżalski. Łódź: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Wyższej Szkoły Pedagogicznej, 2012.

Reformat, Beata, Hanna Zientara. „Nowe technologie informacyjno-komunikacyjne w jednostkach kultury szansą na zdobywanie klientów z pokolenia Y i Z”. W: Biznes w kulturze – kultura w biznesie. Nowoczesne technologie informacyjno-komunikacyjne, red. Beata Reformat, Anna Kwiecień. Katowice: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego, 2017.

Szkudlarek, Tomasz. Media: szkic z filozofii i pedagogiki dystansu. Kraków: Oficyna Wydawnicza „Impuls”, 1999.

Wapiennik, Ewa. „Działania Unii Europejskiej na rzecz osób z niepełnosprawnością”. W: Społeczeństwo równych szans. Tendencje i kierunki zmian, red. Danuta Gorajewska. Warszawa: Stowarzyszenie Przyjaciół Integracji, 2005.

Wapiennik, Ewa, Radosław Piotrowicz. Niepełnosprawny – pełnoprawny obywatel Europy. Warszawa: Urząd Komitetu Integracji Europejskiej, 2002.

Zadrożny, Jacek. „Strona internetowa muzeum dostępna dla wszystkich”. ABC – Gość Niepełnosprawny w Muzeum 2 (2013).

Boundaries of art


Mathematics, being a study on reality moulding, is a science of structures. Artists often draw on the patterns developed in this area. And mathematicians themselves present some of the theories as images that can be seen as works of visual arts. Inevitable questions appear about what art is and what it can be, and should objects, which were not made by artists, be seen as artistic. There are and always have been a lot of common themes: classic geometry with its central perspective, non-Euclidean geometry, topological aspects, reversible figures, impossible objects, fractals, anamorphosis, theory of numbers, games and many more.

Key words: mathematics, reality moulding, topological manifolds, fractal geometry, multidimensionality, impossible objects, anamorphosis



Abelson, Harold, Andrea di Sessa. Geometria żółwia. Tłum. Elżbieta Sepko-Guzicka. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowo-Techniczne, 1992.

Arnheim, Rudolf. Sztuka i percepcja wzrokowa. Psychologia twórczego oka. Tłum. Jolanta Mach. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo „Officyna”, 2014. 

Banchoff, Thomas F. Beyond the Third Dimension: Geometry, Computer Graphics, and Higher Dimensions. New York: W.H. Freeman & Company, 1996.

Baudrillard, Jean. Symulakry i symulacja. Tłum. Sławomir Królak. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Sic!, 2005.

Bill, Max. „Matematyczny sposób myślenia w sztuce”. W: Włodzimierz Wittek, Jan Choroszucha, Stefan Maciąg, Zbigniew Liczbiński. Sztuka, technika, przemysł. Warszawa: Koło Naukowe Wydziału Architektury Wnętrz ASP, 1957.

Ciesielski, Krzysztof, Zdzisław Pogoda. Bezmiar matematycznej wyobraźni. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo „Wiedza Powszechna”, 1995.

Courant, Richard, Herbert Robbins. Co to jest matematyka? Tłum. Leszek Kołodziej. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Prószyński i S-ka, 1998.

Eco, Umberto. Dzieło otwarte. Tłum. Alina Kreisberg, Krzysztof Żaboklicki, Jadwiga Gałuszka, Lesław Eustachiewicz. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo W.A.B., 2008.

Finetti, Bruno de. Sztuka widzenia w matematyce. Tłum. Julian Panz. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, 1983.

Foster, Hal, red., Vision and Visuality. Seattle: Bay Press, 1988.

Gombrich, Ernst H. Sztuka i złudzenie. Tłum. Jan Zarański. Warszawa: Państwowy Instytut Wydawniczy, 1981.

Henderson, Linda D. The Fourth Dimension and Non-Euclidean Geometry in Modern Art. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1983.

Hockney, David. Wiedza tajemna. Tłum. Joanna Holzman. Kraków: TAiWPN Universitas, 2006.

Morawski, Stefan. Na zakręcie: od sztuki do po-sztuki. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Literackie, 1985.

Strzemiński, Władysław. Teoria widzenia. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Literackie, 1974.


The article analyzes the informal architecture of bidonvilles, contemporary shanty towns or slums in Casablanca, Morocco. In the years from 1920 to 1950, Casablanca was an architectural laboratory for French architects and urban planners. New plans of the city expansion by Tardif, Prost, Courtois, and Écochard aimed to structure the uncontrolled sprawl of the city, and define the urban layout of the respective districts. Bidonvilles kept growing as a result of mass migration of the Berbers who were detribalized under the French Protectorate and forced to move from the country to the city. The text discusses bidonvilles as a specific form of transferring “ruralness” to the globalized and overcrowded urban space. It is an expression of willful architecture, “architecture without architect”, erected by the users themselves, out of necessity, without respect for construction standards.

Key words: bidonville, willful architecture, informal architecture, architecture without architect, anarchitecture



Cohen, Jean-Louis, Monique Eleb. Casablanca. Colonial Myths and Architectural Ventures. New York: The Monacelli Press, 2002.

Davis, Mike. Planeta slumsów. Tłum. Katarzyna Bielińska. Warszawa: Instytut Wydawniczy Książka i Prasa, 2009.

Glenn, Somers. Casablanca. Enforcing El Hank’s Right to Exist. Antwerp: Universiteit Antwerpen, 2014.

Oliver, Paul. Encyclopedia of Vernacular Architecture of the World. Cambridge – New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

Rabinow, Paul. Refleksje na temat badań terenowych w Maroku. Tłum. Karolina J. Dudek, Sławomir Sikora. Kęty: Wydawnictwo Marek Derewiecki, 2010.

Rudofsky, Bernard. Architecture without Architects. A Short Introduction to Non-Pedigreed Architecture. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1964.

Said, Edward W. Orientalizm. Tłum. Monika Wyrwas-Wiśniewska. Poznań: Wydawnictwo Zysk i S-ka, 2005.

Syliwoniuk, Agnieszka. Więzi społeczne w kulturze politycznej: przypadek Maroka na tle innych państw arabskich. Warszawa: Dom Wydawniczy „Elipsa”, 2015.

Szymańska, Daniela, Jadwiga Biegańska. „Fenomen urbanizacji i procesy z nim związane”. W: Studia miejskie, red. Janusz Słodczyk, Maria Śmigielska. T. 4. Opole: Uniwersytet Opolski, 2011. 

The Challenge of Slums: Global Report on Human Settlements 2003, raport UN-Habitat. Nairobi: UN-Habitat, 2003, https://unhabitat.org/books/the-challenge-of-slums-global-report-on- -human-settlements-2003/.

Vorbrich, Ryszard. Górale Atlasu marokańskiego. Wrocław: Polskie Towarzystwo Ludoznawcze, 1996.

Żebrowski, Janusz. Maroko. Współczesność a historia. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Akademickie „Dialog”, 2001.



Mukherjee Siddhartha, Gen. Ukryta historia [The Gene: An Intimate History], tłum. Jan Dzierzgowski. Wołowiec: Wydawnictwo Czarne, 2017.

Key words: gene, genetics, ethics, humanism


Kondrasiuk, Grzegorz, red., Cyrk w świecie widowisk [Circus in the World of Spectacles]. Lublin: Warsztaty Kultury w Lublinie, 2017.

Key words: The Carnaval Sztukmistrzów Festival, circus, spectacles, performance


Madejski, Jerzy, Sławomir Iwasiów, red., Interpretatywny słownik terminów kulturowych 2.0 [Return to Interpretation or the Interpretative Dictionary of Cultural Terms 2.0]. Szczecin: Zachodniopomorskie Centrum Doskonalenia Nauczycieli, Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu Szczecińskiego 2017.

Key words: dictionary, interpretation, new media, media studies