Excluded images

Kultura Współczesna. Teoria, Interpretacje, Praktyka
nr 1(121)/2023
Okładka z kroczącą postacią, której głowa przesunięta jest mocno do przodu

Excluded images


The article presents the results of a multi-modal analysis regarding the communicative role of images posted on Instagram and opposed to the service’s visual trends. These images include i.a. photos with the hashtag #nofilterneeded, which reveal the service’s operating principles and are a symbol of the fight against the creation of reality in social media. Based on the conducted research, the author characterizes selected photographs in terms of instagrammability indicators and groups them according to their functions: archivization, communication and autopresentation. Her observations are juxtaposed with analyses conducted by other researchers concerned with the issue of the impact of algorithmization and metrification of social media services on users’ actions and motivations, especially in terms of selecting photos for publication and their role in memory processes. In order to provide a precise description of users’ curatorial practices, the author presents selected visual trends and explains how Instagram’s algorithm operates. A crucial part of her research consists of the interpretation of hashtags added to the analyzed posts. These hashtags not only inform whether the photograph was modified, but also provide the viewer with an interpretative direction, indicating the author’s preferred reading of the work.

Key words: Instagram, mediatization of memory, social media, algorithm



Baudrillard, Jean. Symulakry i symulacja. Tłum. Sławomir Królak. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Sic!, 2005.

Gerlitz, Carolin, Anne Helmond. „The like economy: Social buttons and the data-intensive web”. New Media & Society 15, 8 (2013). https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1461444812472322.

Highfield, Tim, Tama Leaver. „Instagrammatics and digital methods: Studying visual social media, from selfies and GIFs to memes and emoji”. Communication Research and Practice 2, 1 (2016).

Hudzik, Jan P. Wykłady z filozofii mediów. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, 2017.

Jacobsen, Benjamin, David Beer. „Quantified nostalgia: Social media, metrics, and memory”. Social Media + Society 7, 2 (2021). https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/20563051211008822.

Jurgenson, Nathan. Fotka. O zdjęciach i mediach społecznościowych. Tłum. Łukasz Zaremba. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Karakter, 2021.

Liu, Hongbo, Xiang Li. „How travel earns us bragging rights: A qualitative inquiry and conceptualization of travel bragging rights”. Journal of Travel Research 60, 8 (2021). https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0047287520964599.

Michałowska, Marianna. Przewrotne przyjemności obrazu. Eseje o fotografii w kulturze popularnej. Gdańsk: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Katedra, 2020.

Serafinelli, Elisa. „Networked remembrance in the time of Insta-memories”. Social Media + Society 6, 3 (2020). https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2056305120940799.

Shaw, Julia. Oszustwa pamięci. Tłum. Anna Cichowicz. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Amber, 2018.

Stopczyńska, Kinga. Influencer marketing w dobie nowych mediów. Łódź: Wydawnictwo UŁ, 2021.

Stsiampkouskaya, Kseniya, Adam Joinson, Lukasz Piwek, Lorna Stevens. „Imagined audiences, emotions, and feedback expectations in social media photo sharing”. Social Media + Society 7, 3 (2021). https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/20563051211035692.

Van Dijck, José. „Pamięć zmediatyzowana jako narzędzie pojęciowe”. Tłum. Roman Chymkowski. W: Antropologia pamięci, red. Paweł Majewski, Marcin Napiórkowski. Warszawa: Wydawnictwa UW, 2022.

Van Dijck, José. „Zmediatyzowane wspomnienia w epoce cyfrowej”. Tłum. Michał Szota. W: Fotospołeczeństwo. Antologia tekstów z socjologii wizualnej, red. Małgorzata Bogunia-Borowska, Piotr Sztompka. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Znak, 2012.

Villaespesa, Elena, Sara Wowkowych. „Ephemeral storytelling with social media: Snapchat and Instagram stories at the Brooklyn Museum”. Social Media + Society 6, 1 (2020). https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/2056305119898776.


This article undertakes to analyze strategies of machine vision in selected artistic projects based on facial recognition and analysis techniques. The specific nature of AI activity regarding image recognition, analysis, processing and creation is presented with regard to thoughts on the characteristics of non-human (machine) perception. The author considers to what extent machine learning techniques – ascribed algorithmic reductionism in representing reality due to data operationalization – can constitute strategies of generating exclusion (i.e. in terms of identity or species), and to what extent they can have emancipatory character and condition the restoration of visibility of individuals or groups, both human and non-human, especially in the context of a socio-political regime. Moreover, the article defines various socio-political factors in the creation of images of the excluded, including the context of speculative anthropometry. The presented theoretical approach analyses art & science projects by Shinseungback Kimyonghun, Thomas Guggenberger, Trevor Paglen, Hleb Burnashev, as well as the This Person Doesn’t Exist initiative and the discussion surrounding it.

Key words: image, neural network, biometrics, facial recognition techniques, artificial intelligence



Böhlen, Marc. „Certain aspects of machine vision in the arts”. W: John DiMarco. Computer Graphics and Multimedia: Applications, Problems and Solutions. Hershey: Idea Group Publishing, 2004.

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Johnson, Gabbrielle M. „Algorithmic bias. On the implicit biases of social technology”. Synthese 198 1 (2021).

Lee, Tiffany. „Biometrics and disability rights: Legal compliance in biometric identification programs”. Journal of Law, Technology & Policy 2 (2016).

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Paez, Danny. „‘This Person Does Not Exist’ creator reveals his site’s creepy origin story”. Inverse, 21 lutego 2019. https://www.inverse.com/article/53414-this-person-does-not-existcreator-interview.

Parisi, Luciana. „Digital automation and affect”. W: Timing of Affect: Epistemologies, Aesthetics, Politics, red. Marie-Luise Angerer, Bernd Bösel, Michaela Ott. Berlin: Diaphanes, 2014.

Said, Ebrahem, Mona Nasr. „Face recognition system”. International Journal Advanced Networking and Applications 12, 2 (2020).

Schiller, Devon. „The black box grimaces back”. Membrana 2, 1 (2017).

Schiller, Devon. „The face is (not) like a mirror: The advertising rhetoric of the catoptric metaphor from the art of physiognomy to the science of facial expression”. International Journal of Semiotics and Visual Rhetoric 1, 2 (2017).

Umoja Noble, Safiya. Algorithms of Oppression. How Search Engines Reinforce Racism. New York: New York University Press, 2018.

Van Noorden, Richard. „The ethical questions that haunt facial-recognition research”. Nature, 18 listopada 2020. https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-020-03187-3.

Westerlund, Mika. „The emergence of deepfake technology: a review”. Technology Innovation Management Review 9, 11 (2019).

Zylinska, Joanna. AI Art. Machine Visions and Warped Dreams. London: Open Humanities Press, 2020.


The text examines selected art projects that use re-cycled visual materials excluded from media circulation because of poor quality, physical damages or incompatibility with aesthetic standards or media norms. In many cases exclusion of certain representations is a part of much more complex mechanisms of social or cultural exclusion of artists themselves and/or of people represented in re-cycled images. These processes of exclusion are analyzed in terms of post-cinema and post-art research focused on the transformation of the process of representation and operation of audiovisual culture. The suggested approach is connected to discussions regarding old and new media regimes, and ongoing changes in visual communication due to technological development and aesthetic evolution. The analysis is conducted on selected works of these artists who have deliberately re-cycled visual materials of different kinds, re-working them digitally and mechanically. At the same time all these artists have negotiated the methods of exhibiting and perceiving the re-cycled images in galleries or in selected media. For artists such as Mahshid Mahboubifar, Gideon Mendel and Richard Mosse it is important to combine found-footage technique with post-digital tools to expose human and non-human aspects of re-created images.

Key words: exclusion, post-cinema, post-art, visual regime



Ahmed, Sara. Queer Phenomenology. Orientations, Objects, Others. Durham: Duke University Press, 2006.

Birkin, Jane. Archive Photography and the Language of Administration. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2021.

Chateau, Dominique, José Moure. Post-Cinema: Cinema in the Post-Art Era. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2020.

Denson, Shane, Julia Leyda, red., Post-Cinema: Theorizing 21st-Century Film. Falmer: Reframe Books, 2016.

Fox, Killian. „The big picture: the fading of hope in post-apartheid South Africa”. The Guardian, 1 grudnia 2019. https://www.theguardian.com/theobserver/2019/dec/01/the-big-picture-gideon-mendel-south-africa.

Mitchell, W.J.T. Czego chcą obrazy? Tłum. Łukasz Zaremba. Warszawa: Narodowe Centrum Kultury, 2013.

Van Dijck, José. „Digital photography: communication, identity, memory”. Visual Communication 7 (2008).

Zylinska, Joanna. Nonhuman Photography. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 2017.


The text considers footage shot by amateur Polish filmmakers during or after the Second World War and focused on that period. These include films by Tadeusz Franiszyn from 1944 documenting German occupation of Krakow, footage from the Warsaw Ghetto shot by Alfons Ziółkowski in 1941 and a feature-length documentary Oświęcim shot by the Amateur Film Club Śląsk in 1960 and showing the remains of the Auschwitz-Birkenau camp. All of these materials have unquestionable historic value and provide a unique depiction of the Second World War era. However, neither of them is well-known and neither has been thoroughly examined despite the fact that they all have circulated in the public sphere both as exceptional footage and historical documents. Their exclusion is connected with their amateur status which points not to the value and quality of non-professional films, but to their otherness. What defines the specific nature of amateur films is that their topic is as relevant as the reason they have been made – the very moment of filming and their context.

Key words: Second World War, amateur film, the Warsaw Ghetto, Auschwitz-Birkenau camp



Bednarski, Eric. Odkrył nieznany film z getta. „To obraz, który mnie prześladuje”. Rozm. Klaudia Kamieniarz. TVN Warszawa, 19 kwietnia 2019. https://tvn24.pl/tvnwarszawa/najnowsze/odkryl-nieznany-film-z-getta-to-obraz-ktory-mnie-przesladuje-119426.

Ciszewski, Jacek. „Film bez aktorów”. Trybuna Robotnicza 85 (1960).

Complete National Film Registry Listing. Library of Congress. https://www.loc.gov/programs/national-film-preservation-board/film-registry/complete-national-film-registry-listing/.

Haratyk, Paulina. Wywiad z Janem Maćkowem. Katowice, 3 listopada 2017.

Haratyk, Paulina. Wywiad z Janem Maćkowem. Katowice, 27 maja 2022.

Ishizuka, Karen L. „The home movie: A veil of poetry”. W: Rencontres Autour Des Inedits. Essays on Amateur Film. Jubilee Book. Charleroi: European Association Inedits, 1997.

Ishizuka, Karen L., Patricia R. Zimmermann, red., Mining the Home Movie. Excavations in Histories and Memories. Berkley: University of California Press, 2008.

Mach, Elżbieta, Tadeusz Franiszyn. „Filmowałem ucieczkę Niemców”. Przekrój 5, 1295 (1970).

Marecki, Piotr. Kino niezależne w Polsce 1989–2009. Historia mówiona. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Krytyki Politycznej, 2009.

Norbert Boronowski – filmografia. Film Polski. https://filmpolski.pl/fp/index.php?osoba=1181557.

Stradomski, Wiesław. Film amatorski w Polsce. Warszawa: Centralny Ośrodek Metodyki Upowszechniania Kultury, 1971.

Wees, William C. Recycled Images. The Art and Politics of Found Footage Films. New York: Anthology Film Archives, 1993.

Wójcik, Ryszard. „Zatrzymane w kadrze. Notatki ze Studia 2”. W: 100/XX: Antologia polskiego reportażu XX wieku, red. Mariusz Szczygieł. T. 2: 1966–2000. Wołowiec: Wydawnictwo Czarne, 2014.


The author analyses and interprets the movie Tonia i jej dzieci by Marcel Łoziński, focusing on the process of constructing a story about women: mother Tonia Lechtman and daughter Wera Lechtman, keepers of the memory about traumatic events – experiences of violence committed by the authorities. She poses the question about the course of the narrative transfer in the movie Tonia i jej dzieci, considering the categories of private and public space, referred to as a classic distinction still valid in contemporary philosophical thought, and invoking the so-called ‘history from below’ phenomenon which takes into account stories of ordinary people in historic research. The article investigates and illuminates Marcel Łoziński’s directorial practices in the context of a semi-open movie concept, which by allowing for a conversation and for articulation of individual experiences of the heroes’ memory, make it possible to negotiate them with memory types defined in Aleida Assmann’s classification as generational, collective and cultural. It presents the phenomenon of post-memory of traumatic experiences as formed at the intersection of the narrative transfer planes. The author emphasizes special aspects of complementing general history with the silenced voices of women, formed within the female genealogies renegotiating the symbolic space, by referring to insights of Luce Irigaray presented in the text Le Corps-à-corps avec la mère.

Key words: found footage, documentary, history from below, post-memory, antisemitism



Assmann, Aleida. „Cztery formy pamięci”. Tłum. Karolina Sidowska. W: Aleida Assmann. Między historią a pamięcią. Antologia. Red. Magdalena Saryusz-Wolska. Warszawa: Wydawnictwa UW, 2013.

Doane, Mary A. „Kobiety obdarzone pamięcią. Psychiczne i historyczne konstrukcje w teorii filmu”. Tłum. Alicja Helman. W: Panorama współczesnej myśli filmowej, red. Alicja Helman. Kraków: Universitas, 1992.

Hendrykowski, Marek. Marcel Łoziński. Warszawa: Więź, 2008.

Hirsch, Marianne. „Pokolenie postpamięci”. Didaskalia 105 (2011).

Irigaray, Luce. Ciało-w-ciało z matką. Tłum. Agata Araszkiewicz. Kraków: Wydawnictwo eFKa, 2000.

Keff, Bożena. „Jak się zostawało komunistką, czyli Tonia i jej dzieci Marcela Łozińskiego”. Studia Litteraria et Historica 1 (2012).

Kersten, Krystyna. „Marzec 1968 i tzw. kwestia żydowska w Polsce po II wojnie światowej”. W: Przeciw antysemityzmowi 1936–2009. Wybór, wstęp i opracowanie Adam Michnik. Kraków: Universitas, 2010.

Kornacki, Krzysztof. „Polityka, psychologia i człowiek – twórczość Marcela Łozińskiego”. Kwartalnik Filmowy 23 (1998).

Lubelski, Tadeusz. „Matka odchodzi. «No Home Movie»”. Ekrany 30, 3 (2016).

Myers, Kevin, Ian Grosvenor. „Collaborative research: History from below”. W: Connected Communities Foundation Series, red. Keri Facer, Katherine Dunleavy. Bristol: University of Bristol, 2018.

Odin, Roger. „Reflection on the family home movie as document. A semio-pragmatic approach”. W: Mining the Home Movie. Excavations in Histories and Memories, red. Karen L. Ishizuka, Patricia R. Zimmermann. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2008.

Oppenheimer, Joshua. „Perpetrators’ testimony and the restoration of humanity: S21, Rithy Panh”. W: Killer Images: Documentary Film, Memory and the Performance of Violence, red. Joram ten Brink, Joshua Oppenheimer. New York: Columbia University Press, 2012.

Przewrocka-Aderet, Karolina. Polanim. Z Polski do Izraela. Wołowiec: Wydawnictwo Czarne, 2019.

Radkiewicz, Małgorzata. „Władczynie spojrzenia”. Teoria filmu a praktyka reżyserek i artystek. Kraków: Korporacja Ha!art, 2010.

Zimmermann, Patricia R. „Introduction. The home movie movement: Excavations, artifacts, minings”. W: Mining the Home Movie. Excavations in Histories and Memories, red. Karen I. Ishizuka, Patricia R. Zimmermann. Berkeley: University of California Press, London 2008.


The article describes strategies and methods used in artistic research on archives, especially queer archives (i.e. ones created and developed by non-heteronormative persons), and archives which engage in a dialogue with queer perspectives on such concepts as: time, subjectivity, interpersonal and interspecies relations and human’s place in the Anthropocene Epoch. By referring to practices of moving image practitioners and visual artists such as Belinda Kazeem-Kamiński, Alexandra Juhasz and Ana Hoffner ex-Prvulovic*, the author concentrates on issues related to: materiality and representability of the archival “ephemera” (affects, narrative gaps), particularly those using digital media; the epistemological and ethical responsibility involved in the creation of queer archives; as well as benefits from conducting intersectional and transdisciplinary research. The above concepts originated in broadly defined (post)queer studies, combining interest in sexual and gender non-heteronormativity with discourses of new materialism and ecological humanities. Thanks to them the archive becomes a space of critical reflections also to the non-material and non-representable elements which create it: affects, narrative gaps and omissions.

Key words: archive, ephemera, queer studies, affect



Azoulay, Ariella A. Potential History: Unlearning Imperialism. New York: Verso, 2019.

Bennett, Jane. Vibrant Matter: A Political Ecology of Things. Durham: Duke University Press, 2010.

Caswell, Michelle, Ricardo Punzalan, T-Kay Sangwand. „Critical archival studies: An introduction”. Journal of Critical Library and Information Studies 1, 2 (2017).

Cvetkovich, Ann. „Foreword”. W: Out of the Closet, Into the Archives, red. Amy L. Stone, Jaime Cantrell. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2015.

Derrida, Jacques. „Archive fever: A Freudian impression”. Diacritics 25, 2 (1995).

Foster, Hal. „An archival impulse”. October 110 (2004).

Gordon, Avery. Ghostly Matters. Haunting and the Sociological Imagination. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1997.

Hartman, Saidiya. „Venus in two acts”. Small Axe 12, 2 (2008).

Hoffner, Ana. The Queerness of Memory. Berlin: b_books, 2018.

Juhasz, Alexandra. „Video Remains: Nostalgia, technology, and queer archive activism”. GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies 12, 2 (2006).

Lowry, James. „Introduction: Displaced archives”. W: Displaced Archives, red. James Lowry. Abingdon: Routledge, 2017.

Muñoz, José E. „Ephemera as evidence. Introductory notes to queer acts”. Women & Performance: A Journal of Feminist Theory 8, 2 (1996).

Tuck, Eve, K. Wayne Yang. „R-Words: Refusing research”. W: Humanizing Research: Decolonizing Qualitative Inquiry with Youth and Communities, red. Django Paris, Maisha T. Winn. Thousand Oakes CA: Sage Publications, 2014.

Vallier, John. „Authorship”. W: Keywords in Remix Studies, red. Eduardo Navas, Owen Gallagher, xtine burrough. New York: Routledge, 2018.

Yakel, Elizabeth. „Archival representation”. Archival Science 3 (2003).



The article presents the life and work of an outstanding Ukrainian artist Vasyl Sedliar. Sedliar was one of the most eminent representatives of the Kiev school of Mykhailo Boychuk – the most famous circle of the Ukrainian artistic avant-garde between 1910 and 1920. Sedliar’s work, like the works of other boychukists, was an original and fruitful attempt of combining, on the one hand, the experience of the Western avant-garde with elements of the Ukrainian folk art and the neoprimitive; and on the other hand, noble traditions of religious art of the Byzantine Empire and early Renaissance, the Ukrainian school of icon painting. The series of illustrations drawn for Kobzar created by Sedliar over the period 1920–1930 represents the height of his graphic abilities. The issues of Kobzar with Sedliar’s illustrations survived the destruction in the hearth of the Stalinist inquisition and became an integral part of the Ukrainian and global culture in the twentieth century.

Key words: boychukism, Ukrainian art, Ukrainian avant-garde, neoprimitivism, postmodernism



Biłokiń, Serhij, red., Bojczuk ta joho szkoła. Kijów: Mystectwo 2017.

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Rudzitsky, Artur. Ja choczu robyty i bilsze niczoho ja ne choczu. Wasyl Sedliar. Kijów: Samit-Knyha, 2020.

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Rudzitsky, Artur. „Rozstrilianyj Kobzar”. Muzejnyj Prowułok 2 (2009).


The article describes changes which occurred between 1939 and 1944 in the Warsaw market of artisans connected to the fashion industry. Before the war, artisanship had dominated this sector in the Paris of the North, as the capital city of the Second Polish Republic used to be called. The outbreak of the Second World War destroyed formerly existing structures. Some sections of the market had to change their profile, others were marginalized or completely eliminated, and all of them faced unprecedented problems. These transformations were caused by changes of legal, economical, social and moral nature, as presented in the article. First and foremost, they limited the freedom of operation of the Jewish artisans, who were later exterminated. Other changes resulted from artisans’ attempts to adjust to the new reality, such as migrations or changing the character of the business; attempts to control the production undertaken by the German administration (legal regulations) and the financial condition of the majority of the Polish society, deteriorating with each year of the war. The changes in the Polish artisanship connected with the fashion industry between 1939 and 1944 were deep and irreversible, which impacted the process of creation of the Polish fashion market after the war.

Key words: Warsaw, artisanship, fashion, occupation, Second World War



7 dni. 1940–1944.

Baranowski, Włodzimierz. Administracja okupacyjna w Gen. Gubernatorstwie. Londyn: [b.n.w.], 1942.

Bartoszewski, Władysław. 1859 dni Warszawy. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Znak, 1974.

Biuletyn Grupy Głównej Gospodarki i Ruchu w Izbie Centralnej i Grup Głównych Gospodarki Przemysłowej i Ruchu w Izbach Okręgowych dla Gospodarki Ogólnej. 1942–1944.

Biuletyn Informacyjny. Część I–IV. W: Przegląd Historyczno-Wojskowy II–V, 1–4 (spec.) (2001–2004).

Chętnik, Adam. Wspomnienia z lat okupacji. Warszawa: Muzeum Historii Polskiego Ruchu Ludowego, 2014.

Dąbrowski, Karol. „Izba Centralna Gospodarki Ogólnej, izby dystryktowe i grupy główne w Generalnym Gubernatorstwie, jako instytucje niemieckiej administracji gospodarczej w latach 1941–1944”. Zeszyty Naukowe Wydziału Prawa i Ekonomii Wyższej Szkoły Humanistyczno-Przyrodniczej w Sandomierzu 3 (2006).

Górnicki, Leonard. „Z problematyki podmiotów prawa cywilnego i praw podmiotowych prywatnych obywateli polskich w Generalnym Gubernatorstwie”. Studia nad Autorytaryzmem i Totalitaryzmem 42 4 (2020).

Landau, Ludwik. Kronika lat wojny i okupacji. Oprac. Zbigniew Landau, Jerzy Tomaszewski. Warszawa: Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, 1962–1963.

Nowy Kurier Warszawski. 1939–1944.

Raporty Ludwiga Fischera gubernatora dystryktu warszawskiego 1939–1944. Wybór i oprac. Krzysztof Dunin-Wąsowicz. Tłum. Maryla Borkowicz, Władysław Czepulis, Jan Kosim. Warszawa: Spółdzielnia Wydawniczo-Handlowa Książka i Wiedza, 1987.

Srokowski, Stanisław. Dziennik 1939–1944. Oprac. Piotr Biliński, Jacek E. Szczepański. Warszawa: Instytut Solidarności i Męstwa im. Witolda Pileckiego, 2021.

Szarota, Tomasz. Okupowanej Warszawy dzień powszedni. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Czytelnik, 2010.

Szymańska, Magda, oprac., Warszawa zapamiętana. W okupowanej stolicy. Warszawa: Dom Spotkań z Historią, 2019.

Verordnungsblatt des Generalgouverneurs für die besetzten polnischen Gebiete / Dziennik Rozporządzeń
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Verordnungsblatt für das Generalgouvernement / Dziennik Rozporządzeń dla Generalnego Gubernatorstwa. 1940–1943.


The main topic of the article is the portraying strategy based on obscuring or expunging the portrayed person. By referring to the works by Gerhard Richter, Adrian Piper, Franceska Woodman and Pierre Huyghe the author shows how experiments with making subjects invisible become meaningful practices, responsible for ideological and aesthetic results. They contribute not only to the change in the process of seeing per se, in the broadest sense, but also – in a more detailed perspective – to the change in the perception of the painting and photography as a medium. In these artistic practices the visual media, traditionally considered as representational and therefore connected with the informative-semantic function of signs, refer to themselves in an ambiguous way, combining the role of an image with the role of a sign. Artistic strategies of expunging/obscuring are attempts to not so much question mediality/mediation of every representation as show the process of transforming an image into a sign and a sign into an image. Consequently, portraits where the visible turns into a cognitive-aesthetic problem become a part of the dispute regarding the character and use of visual representations. They allow to pose questions about the conditions in which an image can be expressed in semiotic categories and about situations when such expressions hinder the reflection on the offer given to us by paintings.

Key words: portrait, image, sign, expunging, obscuring



Borchardt-Hume, Achim. „«Dreh Dich Nicht Um»: Don’t Turn Around. Richter’s Paintings of the Late 1980s”. W: Gerhard Richter, Panorama, red. Mark Godfrey, Nicholas Serota. London: Tate Publishing, 2011.

Burson, Nancy. Warhead I, 1982. The MET. https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/266955.

Crary, Jonathan. Zawieszenia percepcji. Uwaga, spektakl i kultura nowoczesna. Tłum. Łukasz Zaremba, Iwona Kurz. Warszawa: Wydawnictwa UW, 2009.

DeLillo, Don. Anioł Esmeralda. Dziewięć opowiadań. Tłum. Kacper Obłucki. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Noir sur Blanc, 2013.

Foster, Hal. Powrót Realnego. Awangarda u schyłku XX wieku. Tłum. Mateusz Borowski, Małgorzata Sugiera. Kraków: Universitas, 2010.

Harvey, Marcus. Myra, 1995. https://www.artsy.net/artwork/marcus-harvey-myra.

Higgins, Jackie. Dlaczego zdjęcie nie musi być ostre? Przewodnik po fotografii współczesnej. Tłum. Ewa Romkowska. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Arkady, 2015.

Huyghe, Pierre. Untitled (Human Mask), 2014. The MET. https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/684796.

Mühe, Andreas. Mischpoche, 2019. Staatliche Museen zu Berlin. https://www.smb.museum/en/exhibitions/detail/andreas-muehe/.

Piper, Adrian. Food for the Spirit, 1971. Art Basel. https://www.artbasel.com/catalog/artwork/55861/Adrian-Piper-Food-for-the-Spirit.

Rancière, Jacques. Estetyka jako polityka. Tłum. Julian Kutyła, Paweł Mościcki. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo „Krytyki Politycznej”, 2007.

Richter, Gerhard. Baader-Meinhof. October 18, 1977. https://www.gerhard-richter.com/en/art/paintings/photo-paintings/baader-meinhof-56.

Wiesing, Lambert. Sztuczna obecność. Studia z filozofii obrazu. Tłum. Krystyna Krzemieniowa. Warszawa: Oficyna Naukowa, 2012.

Woodman, Francesca. Self-Deceit #4 (Roma), 1977–1978. National Galleries of Scotland. https://www.nationalgalleries.org/art-and-artists/85848.

Zuffi, Stefano, Matilde Battistini, Anna Gogut, red., Historia portretu. Przez sztukę do wieczności. Tłum. Hanna Cieśla. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Arkady, 2001.


Despite centuries of perfecting supervisory techniques, we still find ourselves between their commonness and anxiety caused mainly by the asymmetry of the viewer/viewed relationship. Video surveillance has become a very common phenomenon today, fitting harmoniously into the urban infrastructure. However, if its existence can be explained by the simple logic of exchanging privacy for security, then why do CCTV cameras still fascinate artists? For years, we have been observing a multitude of curatorial projects in which the tools of visual surveillance are used in the field of critical art or artivism, and at the same time thoroughly researched. Paradoxically, both these spheres are connected by the desire to carefully observe society and create images. Art attempts to highlight not only the ethical threats generated by the culture of surveillance, but also to uncover all traps, paradoxes and discontinuities in the discourses that legitimize this surveillance. That is why artists perform hundreds of experiments in this field, ranging from quasi-guides of everyday resistance, through taking the initiative in the field of ‘following the followers’, ironically dismantling the authority of the ‘eye of power’, to infiltration and analysis of monitoring systems, i.e. legal, ethical and technological rules governing this medium.

Key words: CCTV, surveillance culture, panopticism, art, artivism



Baudrillard, Jean. O uwodzeniu. Tłum. Janusz Margański. Warszawa: Sic!, 2005.

Bauman, Zygmunt. Płynna nowoczesność. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Literackie, 2007.

Beck, Ulrich. Społeczeństwo ryzyka. W drodze do innej rzeczywistości. Tłum. Stanisław Cieśla. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Scholar, 2004.

Binicewicz, Aleksandra. O prywatności w świecie nowych technologii. Asymetria przejrzystości. Kraków: Universitas, 2021.

Brighenti, Andrea M. „Artveillance: At the crossroads of art and surveillance”. Surveillance & Society 7, 2 (2010).

Danto, Arthur. „The Artworld”. The Journal of Philosophy 61, 19 (1964).

Foucault, Michel. Nadzorować i karać. Narodziny więzienia. Tłum. Tadeusz Komendant. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Aletheia, 2020.

McLuhan, Marshall. Understanding Media: the extensions of man. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964.

Metahaven. Black Transparency. The Right to Know in the Age of Mass Surveillance. London: Sternberg Press, 2015.

Pickering, Sharon, Leanne Weber, red., Borders, Mobility, and Technologies of Control. Dordrecht: Springer Science & Business Media, 2006.

Steyerl, Hito. „The spam of the earth: Withdrawal from representation”. e-flux Journal 32 (2012).

Weizman, Eyal. Forensic Architecture. Violence at the Threshold of Detectability. New York: Zone Books, 2017.


Through graphical user interfaces, changes are occurring in image understanding and operation. The article defines basic guidelines for designing a graphical image – the category of analogy and contrast. Afterwards it analyses their contribution to the process of the digital graphical image liberation from remembering its semantics in favor of using the said image. It has been proven that analogy and contrast – as visual categories which balance between unconsciousness and consciousness, forgetting and remembering – fit very well into the aspect of utility of a graphic instrument. Similar or identical interface components do not focus viewer’s attention, therefore they are probably being perceived automatically. Only the visual contrast, introduced e.g. by an interface button, conditions the stimulation of selective – therefore conscious – attention. This attention is necessary to remember the procedure for using a graphic instrument, i.e. for placing it in long-term memory. Placement in this memory space allows us to use the remembered procedure again, this time intuitively. In this way the interface becomes – as per the etymology of the word graphics – a useful tool, operating in an intuitive, convenient and efficient manner. Through the interface we are learning to use digital technologies in utilitarian tasks.

Key words: applied graphics, UX/UI, design, remembered image, excluded image



Arnheim, Rudolf. Myślenie wzrokowe. Tłum. Marek Chojnacki. Gdańsk: Wydawnictwo Słowo/obraz terytoria, 2011.

Arnheim, Rudolf. Sztuka i percepcja wzrokowa. Psychologia twórczego oka. Tłum. Jolanta Mach. Warszawa: Wydawnictwa Artystyczne i Filmowe, 2004.

Campbell, Neil A. Biologia. Tłum. Krzysztof Stobrawa i in. Poznań: Dom Wydawniczy Rebis, 2021.

Celiński, Piotr. „Interfejsy mediów cyfrowych – dalsza emancypacja obrazów czy szansa na ich zdetronizowanie?”. Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Skłodowska (sectio K, politologia) 13 (2006).

Dębowski, Przemek, Jacek Mrowczyk, red., Widzieć/wiedzieć. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Karakter, 2015.

Fleischer, Michael. Communication design, czyli projektowanie komunikacji. Łódź: Wydawnictwo Primum Verbum, 2010.

Heidegger, Martin. Drogi lasu. Tłum. Krzysztof Wolicki. Warszawa: Fundacja Aletheia, 1997.

Köhler, Wolfgang. The Task of Gestalt Psychology. Princeton: Princeton Legacy Library, 2015.

Kuang, Cliff, Robert Fabricant. User Friendly. Jak niewidoczne zasady projektowania zmieniają nasze życie, pracę i rozrywkę. Tłum. Dawid Czech. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Karakter, 2022.

Maruszewski, Tomasz. Psychologia poznawcza. Warszawa: Polskie Towarzystwo Semiotyczne, 1996.

Nęcka, Edward, Jarosław Orzechowski, Błażej Szymura. Psychologia poznawcza. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, 2006.

Nielsen, Jacob. Projektowanie funkcjonalnych serwisów internetowych. Tłum. Agata Bulandra. Gliwice: Wydawnictwo Helion, 2003.

Poulin, Richard. Język projektowania graficznego. Tłum. Anna Cichowicz. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Top Mark Centre, 2011.

Smaga, Agnieszka. Cyfrowa grafosfera. Wprowadzenie do badań nad graficzną organizacją środowiska cyfrowego. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe UKSW, 2019.

Wojciszke, Bogdan. Psychologia społeczna. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Scholar, 2019.

Zimbardo, Philip G. Psychologia i życie. Tłum. Ewa Czerniawska i in. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, 2002.



Pacukiewicz, Marek. Krajobrazy kontekstu [Context landscapes]. Katowice: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Śląskiego, 2021.

Key words: cultural studies, metaphysics, landscape, context, semiotics


Adamowicz-Pośpiech, Agnieszka. Adaptacje biografii i twórczości Josepha Conrada w kulturze współczesnej [Adaptations of Joseph Conrad’s Biography and Works in Contemporary Culture]. Katowice: Wydawnictwo UŚ, 2022.

Key words: Joseph Conrad, grammatextuality, pansemantics, reception models, branding


Guardini, Romano. Listy znad jeziora Como [Letters from Lake Como, oryg. Die Technik und der Mensch. Briefe vom Comer See]. Tłum. Kamil Markiewicz. Warszawa: Narodowy Instytut Architektury i Urbanistyki, 2021.

Key words: Romano Guardini, person, culture, technique, crisis